Mining people who are employed in organized or unorganized

Mining WorkersSrilekha TejavathMAD16143Labor in India basically refers to the people who are employed in organized or unorganized sector and contributing to the economy of India. Organized sector includes workers who are employed by the government, state-owned enterprises and private sector enterprises. Unorganized sector, which is also named as informal sector or known as own account enterprises, refers to all unlicensed, self-employed or unregistered economic activity such as handicrafts and handloom workers, rural traders, farmers, etc. The term ‘unorganized labor’ is defined as workers who have been unable to organize themselves in the search of common goods. Due to the illiteracy, poverty, ignorance, and small and scattered size of work establishment these workers are exploited by the employers. These types of workers who are highly distressed become bonded labors, migrant labors and contract labors.In today’s era the labor market of India is mostly predominated by informal laborers who are working as either self-employed or as a casual wage laborers. Laborers in the informal sector face a lot of issues with their social life and the wages they receive. Growing competition combined with market opportunities and meagre resources led to the increased number of informal economy and jobs (Srija and Shrinivas: 2014).  Informal sector involves many jobs like peddlers, street vendors, house help, garment workers etc. I wanted to know more about mining workers about their conditions and what they go through by working under dangerous sites.THE workers in mines represent a somewhat distinct category. The conditions under which they work are not only different from those in factories but they are also governed by separate legislation via the India n Mines Ac t 1923. The only source for data relating to employment and wages of workers in mines in the various States was the annual Reports published by the Chief Inspector of Mines in Indi a on the administration of the India n Mines Act, 1923. This data was found to be classified into three main groups via (1) Underground workers (2) Open working workers and (3) Surface workers. Each one of these groups was found to be further subdivided into the following categories; (1) Miners, (2) leaders, (3) Skilled workers (4) Unskilled workers and (5) Female workers (Palekar: 1957). The real wage series for mines as obtained above was combined with that pertaining to factories by the weighted average method using the respective total employments as weights so as to arrive at a general real wage series applicable to each State as a whole. It may now be interesting to carry the above analysis of real wages in India n mines further and examine trends of employment, money wages and real wages according to minerals on an all-Indi a basis. Coal and mica are the only two important minerals which are found in more than one State. The index numbers of employment, money wages and real wages for these two minerals in each State* have been separately calculated, using the corresponding employment as weights and the resulting all-India. The mine workers suffered relatively more severe losses in their real wages than the factory workers (Palekar: 1957). The mining industry exists with the well-recognized fact of having the most strenuous working environment, in which the safety and health of the worker are always a prime concern. Mining safety has always drawn the attention of researchers working in the field of health and safety (Verma and Chaudhari: 2017). The metal and mining industry of India has recorded a strong expansion in the recent past, with the expectation that India is to become the second-largest steel producer from 2015.Working conditions and technology cannot solely be blamed for incidents taking place at the working sites. A study conducted in Queensland, Australia, considering accident data for quarries, open-cut coal mines, underground coal mines, open-cut metal mines, and underground metal mines and revealed that irrespective of the mine type, the major cause of incidents between 2004 and 2008 was skill-based errors performed by the operators, indicating the need to analyze mining accidents from a human-factor perspective in the Indian environment also. The accident analysis in the present work is performed using the modified human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) framework. (Patterson and Shappell: 2010) An accident predicted area is proposed to predict the possibility of the occurrence of mishaps based upon the age of the worker, experience of the worker, and shift timings in which the worker will be working.Each of the subcategories of unsafe acts is further categorized for a comprehensive and systematic classification: (1) attention failure, postural errors, electrical errors, etc., included under skill-based errors; (2) information processing, risk assessment, and situational assessment is included under decision errors; (3) violation of usage of personal protective equipment and procedural violation is included under violation Nano codes; and (4) misjudgment, visual, and auditory errors were included under perceptual error Nano codes. The most prevailing act of the operator identified in this study is attention failure (23.53%), followed by procedural (decision) errors (14.71%), technique errors (12.75%), and situational assessment. Skill-based errors and decision errors are the top priority in all categories, similarly in all shift timing, age, and experience categories, the most common unsafe act performed leading to any incident is skill-based errors and decision error.Preconditions for unsafe acts is further classified into environmental (physical and technical environment), operator’s condition, and personnel factors. The mining industry is known for its dynamic and difficult environmental conditions. Issues concerned with illumination, ventilation, etc., have been a hurdle in maintaining safety at the worksite. Under physical environment, weather is also an important factor, but it has not contributed to a great extent in leading mishaps. The rainy season is the most concerning environmental condition for the mining industry and specifically for open-cast mines? During this season, the mining site is drowned which obstructs work. Interaction of such hazardous site conditions and workers is limited, which helps to prohibit accidents; pumps are used to remove water from the site until the sites are accessible for working. I would recommend if this worker is to be assigned work then because he is a fresher and very young, immediately giving him an III shift should be avoided, as accident scenarios might develop. the worker having experience of between 1 year and 5 years and aged between 27 years and 37 years can be allocated the III shift because the risk level from the FRA model is 4.7, i.e., low. Similarly, many such input combinations can be tested and suitable allocations of the workers can be made to control unsafe working environments. In this way accident-inducing situations can be predicted in advance and prevention can be taken accordingly. Further, to control operator or worker error, the following organizational recommendations can be made. (1) Provision for repeated training modules for workers. At the time of employment initial vocational training along with refresher training within a suitable span to upgrade the workers’ skill set with changing technology, and finally with changes in job special training should mandatorily be given to workers. (2) Effective supervision of work to avoid cases of noncompliance to SOPs. (3) Use of latest devices or personnel protective equipment with proper demonstration/training for the usage to the workers. (4) Mechanization of selected activities such as ore cleaning on ore cleaning floor. (5) Deployment of advanced transportation machineries with provision for rear view camera. (6) Automatic coordination of movement of man and material winding instead of manual coordination and communication. (Observation: the conventional bellman system is presently followed). (7) Mechanization of manual loading activity of ore. (8) Provision to maintain better illumination and ventilation levels in underground workings. (9) Safety week celebration to sensitize workers with the importance of safety and develop safety in their minds. (10) Quality of materials such as timber for support, explosives with appropriate shelf life, shaft winding rope, etc., should be retained as per the standard because it directly affects the safety levels in worksites. (11) The human tracking machine should be used in underground mines.Mine workers are subjected to a number of subtly harmful risks to health and safety, such as a high concentration of mechanical equipment in a confined space. As a result, mine workers are often exposed to a high risk of work-related musculoskeletal injuries, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. A large mining industry has developed here, which provides labor to a large section of the population. Mining is a tedious physical work, and involves exposure to colloidal silica and particulate matter. Workers are more prone to dental injuries due to a limited working area. Due to the tedious working schedule, workers develop the habit of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, which leads to deterioration of their oral health. Most of the mine workers are malnourished, have ill health, and suffer from physical impairments due to accidents at mining areas. According to the Mines and Geology Department, the Government of Rajasthan, the average life expectancy of a mine worker is 49 years. This is 10 years less than the life expectancy of workers who work outside the mines. In conclusion, in the workplace, workers are exposed to biological, chemical, and physical agents, which can result in adverse effects ranging from simple discomfort and irritation to debilitating occupational diseases such as lung fibrosis, neuropathy, deafness, organ damage, lung diseases (such as silicosis, tuberculosis, silicotuberculosis, and asthma), and cancers of various sites. Workers should be provided with protective masks and safety goggles, and their use should be made mandatory. Periodic medical facilities should be provided. All the mine offices should have basic health care facilities so that emergencies can be dealt with on time 8. From an oral health point of view, arrangements should be made for these workers to visit a dentist at least twice a year. All these measures can help identify susceptible workers in due time and reduce the burden of oral disease on this section of the population. This will also improve technical preventive measures, in turn decreasing the risk of occupational hazards.The people of the mining villages receive extremely low wages with no benefits. An adult male worker working in mines receives only Rs.70-120 per day, depending upon his skill, after 8-10 hours of work. Comparatively, the daily wage for a woman is Rs. 45-55, and a child receives Rs. 30-40 a day. These workers don’t get any holidays, no weekly days off for these people, and no maternity leave. Funding will provide health and preventive care in these type of isolated areas where the access to health care is not that easy. Patients should be provided with diagnosis and treatment, including low-cost medication.Women are paid less than men. This is not even half of the official minimum wage for unskilled labor, which is 100 rupees.  In quarries they have to do separate task from men like handpicking, loading and crushing the stones. It takes many skills but then also they are regarded as unskilled labors because there is no formal upgrading of skills and there is no recognition of these tasks. Not only they get less wage then men but they are also sexually harassed by mine owners and contractors. Many interview report shows that Dalit and tribal women are the most exploited sects of people in the mining sector.The amended act of 1935 made a new changes in the age of employment. The age of children was raised to 15 years. Mining Boards were required to be set up by the provincial governments.The amended act of 1940 stipulated that salaries and wages of manager, supervisory staff should be paid by the owner of mine and not by the raising contractor. The Mines Act, 1952 contains the provision related to health, safety and welfare of the workers working in coal, oil and metalliferous mines. The act also prescribes number of working hour in the mines, what should be the minimum wage rate and other related matters. They also have the right to get holidays, maternity leave and safety measures. The laws should be implemented more effectively to uplift these people. Since they are illiterate, they can’t read and write so they are unaware of their rights and the owners and the contractors take this benefit and the workers continue to be the victim of humiliation and harassment. A proper camp should be organized from time to time for the mine worker where they should be informed about the rights which they have and what are the rules and regulations which are made to protect them so that in case of harassment they can also raise their voice.   Article 14 of the Indian Constitution talks about right to equality, then this article should not be limited to a specified or we can say only to the people of high status. It should be enjoyed by each and every individual of the nation whether he or she comes from poor family or rich family, whether he is literate or illiterate. There should not be any discrimination between two individual on any ground.Bibliography:Srija, A., and Shrinivas V. Shirke. “An Analysis of the Informal Labor Market in India.” Special Feature (Confederation of Indian Industry). Download: http://www. ies. gov. in/pdfs/CII% 20EM-october-2014. pdf (2014).Verma, Shikha, and Sharad Chaudhari. “Safety of Workers in Indian Mines: Study, Analysis, and Prediction.” Safety and Health at Work (2017).Patterson, Jessica M., and Scott A. Shappell. “Operator error and system deficiencies: analysis of 508 mining incidents and accidents from Queensland, Australia using HFACS.” Accident Analysis & Prevention 42.4 (2010): 1379-1385.Palekar, Shreekant A. “Real Wages in India 1939-50.” Economic Weekly (1957): 151-60.Solanki, Jitender, Sarika Gupta, and Sachin Chand. “Oral health of stone mine workers of Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India.” Safety and health at work 5.3 (2014):