Mangroves polarization of concentration, adsorption of contaminants, pore obstruction

Mangroves are trees and shrubs with air roots that grow in coastal
sediments between trees that provide shelters for a wide variety of organisms
(Lee, 2008; Rondinelli and Barros, 2010). Due to rooted systems that have been
partially sunken, mangroves damage oil pollution (Suprayogi and Murray, 1999;
Sodre et al., 2013). The response of mangroves to oil spills is different
because of the difference in the hydrological characteristics of mangroves and
mangrove ecosystems that affect the oil stability in the mangrove environment
(Burns et al., 1993; Duke et al., 1997; Klekowski and Colleagues, 1994; Tom et
al., 2005; Getter and Lewis, 2003) (Suprayogi and Murray, 1999; Sodre et al.,
2013). Mangrove forests are strongly
affected by the mixing of water limited by waves, currents and tidal effects
due to the long-term stability of oil in water (Böer, 1993; Burns et al., 1993;
Lewis et al., 2011; NOAA, 1994). The effects of the recovery and the mangroves
after oil spills can be described in four stages (Da Silva et al., 1997),
although the timing varies in different mangroves (e.g., Mixing water, oil
type). These include: 1.An initial
effect, which lasts about 1 year, during which young propagates and young
plants are more likely to die; 2.A structural damage that lasts about 2.5
years. The negative pressure merger
in xylem _28 to _58 atmospheres, which affects marine obscurity (25 to 30
atoms) (Scholander, 1968). Therefore, due to the available pressure, water
absorption by the mangroves can be considered as similar to the membrane
filtration process. When the water has a relatively small concentration of
contaminants, the flux falls below a linear pattern. However, at high concentrations
of contamination, water flow indicates a significant reduction. Reducing charge
can be related to the polarization of concentration, adsorption of
contaminants, pore obstruction and formation of the gel layer (Tansel et al.,
2000). Polarization of the concentration and formation of the gel layer occurs
on the filter surface. During the filtering of water contaminated with oil,
there is almost always a gel layer on the membrane surface (Tansel et al.,
2000, 2001) that reduces the charge flow. Since the gel layer has a small
penetration coefficient and consists mainly of hydrophobic compounds, it is
difficult for large molecules in the gel layer to be transferred to the
solution. The water can pass through the
gel layer, and it can be very fast due to the hydrodynamic transport mechanism.
Concentrations can be used to reduce the rate of corruption in subsequent
filters (Tansel et al., 2005).