including novels are closely related to real social conditions. Since the
author is part of society who is influenced by her environment, social
conditions greatly affect the views and ideology of the author, so that certain
social conditions must affect how literary works are written. Swingewood (1972)
argues that sociology is a scientiffic and objective study about human in the
society. Through sociology, some questions such as how society is formed and
how society work are answered. While, sociological approach is the way seeing a
literary work as the reflection of the real social condion of certain places.
According to Glickberg as states in Endraswara (2006)
all literary works, no matter they are fantasy or mystical, they are always
full of social attention. Thus, it can be said that literary works are never
apart from social conditions. Moreover, Hall in Endraswara (2006) states that the concept of literature is as
social referent. So that, literature is the mirror of society. A Marxist
critic, George Luckacs believes that literary work is not only as a mirror of
society but also gives a bigger, complete and complex reflection of reality.
Luckacs states that it could be possible to use literature as a tool to analyze
the culture or society in certain period.
Rene Wellek and Austin
Warren (1994) in their book Theory of
Literature divided sociological literarute into three kinds; sociological
author, sociological literary work and sociological reader. Sociological author
concerns on the author as the creator of literature who is influenced by the
society, so that the author tries to share the social status and her ideology
into her literatre she is written. Sociological literary work concerns on the
content the literature itself. The content of literature is as the reflection
or imitation of reality. It also can be said that literary works as social
document of the real social condition. Sociological reader concerns on the reader of literature.
Sociological reader concerns in how far the literature influence and affect the
social aspect of the reader.
Swingewood as states in Endraswara (2006) mentions three perspectives of
sociological literature. First, sociological literature that sees literature as
social document which reflect the condition when the literature was made.
Second, sociological literature that sees literature as the reflection of
social condition of the author. Last, sociological literature that sees literature
as manifestation of historical document and condition of social culture.
This study focuses on
the second kind of the concept of sociological literarute that is divided by
Rene Wellek and Austion Warren, it is sociological literary work. It has been
mentioned that sociological literature concerns on the content of the
literature itself and literature is the reflection of the reality. This study
also focuses on the first perspective that is delivered by Laurenson and
Swingewood that literature as social document which reflect the condition when
the literature was created. This study is trying to see the social condition
especially racism toward African-American in Go Set a Watchman by Harper Lee. This study also tries to identify
the forms of racism that are experienced by African-American. Last, this study
relates the racism that is reflected in the novel with the real social
condition of Racism toward African-America in South America in 1950s.
Racism emerges because
some people are fanatic to their race and they assume that their group or race
is better than other group. This assumption makes some people treats people
from other race differently. On another case, these people will claim that
their group is superior than other and they will think that they have a right
toward inferior group. The practice of racism could be done by every people,
whether individually or in a group. Bobo and Fox (2003) argues that racism is a
set of institutional condition of group inequality and ideology of racial
domination, which is characterized by a set of beliefs that subordinate racial
group is biologically or culturally inferior than the dominant racial group.
This beliefs causes discriminatory act or treatment to subordinate racial
group. While, Goorge M. Fredrickson (2005) states that racism is not kind of
attitude or belief that exist in society. Racism is about practice,
institutions and structure according to strict differentiation and it can
create a social order of society. To conclude, racism is a negative action from
certain people who regard their group as the superior which have better
condition in the terms of biological, economic and education aspect toward
Humankind is diversity
in the term of skin color, culture, religion, language and even the ideology.
It is already become a nature that people live based on group which is created
according to the same background. This group later known as race. Race is a
social construct that divides people into different group according to some
characteristics such as physical appearance, ancestral heritage, cultural
history, ethnic classification, and social, economic or political needs of a
community over a period of time.
As social beings,
people will always need to communicate and build a relation with other people,
including people who come from another race. This need causes the formation of
race relation. Edwards (1968) states that race relation is a form of behavior
which comes from contact and interaction of people with various physical and
cultural characteristics. There are two responses toward race relation;
acceptance and rejecion. The acceptance of race relation is done by
assimilation, pluralism and multiculturalism. While, the rejection of race
relation is done by discrimination, prejudice and segregation.
forms of rejection in race relation are caused
by people who have no awareness that differences can be responded
positively. The rejection comes from majority group that think that their group
better than the minority group. This group want to be respected as the best
happens when people become the subject of unequal treatment due to their race.
Discrimination is an act or practice that is done by people of superior group
which have a differential and harmful effect on people of subordinate group.
Accroding to Giddens (2006), discrimination
is an actual behavior toward another group including exclude or limit people of
specific groups from opportunities that are available to other group. For
example the distribution of rewards or benefits unequally because of racial or
ethnic group. To conclude, discrimination is negative treatment that is done by superior
group and inferior group
is the victim.
Segregation is the
spatial and social separation between superior and inferior group. The concept
of segregation is the separation in the term of public places and facilities.
Usually, segregation is conducted by superior group by putting themselves in
the special and secure places from inferior place. Racial segregation may apply
to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain,
using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus,
or in the rental or purchase of a home or of hotel rooms. Clark et al (2004)
states that segregation was located in the social environment in which race prejudice and dicrimination exist.
is a judgment or negative opinion toward inferior group. Prejudice is also
knowns as dislike or distrust toward people, group, custom that is caused by
fear, false information and misconception betwee some racial or ethnic group.
Prejudice always influences people’s attitude and behavior toward people from
inferior group. However, prejudice is often happen based on rumor rather than
on direct evidence and sometimes, prejudice resistant to the new information.
To conclude, prejudice is negative opinion and unfair judgement toward minority
group without any clarification.
Horton and Hunt (1984) there are five factors that cause the prejudice. First
is ethocentrism. The tendency to see the world only through its own cultural
point of view. Ethocentrism concern to see their own group is the best group
while other group is worse. Second is the fact that people often give early
judgemnt toward people they do not know. Third is the generalization that us
given to a group based on certain experience toward people from that group.
Fourth is streotype that is given by some people to support their opinion in
how the relation should be done. Last is the dentency to give prejudice to
group that they consider as rival.