Life ExpectanciesMale 78.2 years oldFemales 82.8 years oldTime Zone(s)• Portugal is part of the Western European Time Zone.• Portugal has 2 main time zones. • Continental Portugal and Madeira use UTC+00:00,• While the Azores use UTC–01:00. • Portugal is 5 hours ahead from Toronto currently. GDP (Gross Domestic Product)Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Portugal was worth US $204.56 billion in 2016. GDP in Portugal averaged US $89.77 Billion from 1960 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of US $262.01 Billion in 2008.Labour ForceIn Portugal they have seen some increments almost each and every quarterAs of 2017 it increased to 59.3%, the unemployment rate in Portugal had dropped little over 8% in November as of 2017.ExportsTop Exports• Vehicles: US$5.8 billion (10.4% of total exports)• Electrical machinery, equipment: $5 billion (9%)• Machinery including computers: $3.6 billion (6.4%)• Mineral fuels including oil: $3.5 billion (6.3%)ImportsPortugal’s imports are mainly the same as the exports.• Vehicles• Machinery/ Equipment• Cars Crude Petroleum • Vehicle Parts • Packaged Medicaments• Petroleum Gas • Vehicles in Portugal are the number one imported and export item.Section 2: Country OverviewTransportation:In Portugal, once you arrive you have several transport options to get around from place to place. One of the main roads is a four-lane auto Estrada also known as the superhighway. This connects Lisbon to Portugal. These types of roads/highways connect the largest towns to the border and ports. Lots of people tend to move from place to place using either a car of course, the rail, busses or even underground. Myself when I went there this past summer we mostly drove everywhere and took the subway in Madrid a couple of times.Rail• Different types of trains travel to different areas with all major cities and towns being connected.• They are fast• Relatively cheap way of travellingBuses• Taking the bus can be a cost-effective and convenient way to get around• Bus stops are all over the major towns and cities of Portugal• Many visitors like to experience this way of travelling and take advantage of inexpensive ticketsTaxi• Taxis offer a fair value over short distances• There are lots in large towns and cities.• A fare of €6 will usually get you across bigger townsGovernmentPortugal has been republic since the early 1920. The residents of portugal take part in picking and chose from their leaders. Portugal has four supreme forms which are the President of the republic who is the Chief of State, The Assembly of the Republic, the courts and the Government. The legislature is a self-governing body that knowingly manages directing the general governmental issues. The term government in the Portuguese setting refers to the collective service. The ministry contains of the team of ministers and the prime minister. The prime minister is the head of the government. As of today, The current President of Portugal is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, who took office on 9 March 2016 and the Prime Minister is Antonio Costa who took office in November 2015.Portugal has a unicameral Assembly with 230 seats made up of 226 individuals chose directly in multi-situate voting public, four individuals speaking to Portuguese living abroad. The members serve for 4 years. The most noteworthy court is the Supreme Court which has 12 justices. There is the Constitutional Court made up of 13 judges. The judges of the Supreme Court are assigned by the president, yet the Assembly of the Republic delegates them. Ten of the established judges are chosen by the Assembly, and three are chosen by the court judges. The judges serve for just a single term of six years, and it is not renewable.EducationThe Ministry of Education (primary and secondary education) and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (higher education) are jointly responsible for the entire Portuguese education system, and are supported by the Ministry of Labour and Social Solidarity in providing pre-school education. Basic education in Portugal is compulsory and free for everyone. Beginners who complete this schooling receive a certificate of basic education. Secondary education studies and includes various courses intended principally to prepare young people to go on to higher education or to enter the labour market. It’s for three years, corresponding to school years 10, 11 and 12. Specialised artistic education courses are provided within the secondary education system and are intended to provide artistic training for those hoping to continue their studies and prepare for a career in the visual arts, dance and music, and encourage individual and group artistic activities. English-speaking international schools in Portugal, especially in primary and secondary education can be found in the Greater Lisbon area and the Algarve. The average of grades obtained in all subjects (now including Physical Education) represents a part of the application grade to enter college. The other part is based on the grade of the specific exams that the college requests, which are related with the course the student is applying for. The average of both averages is the application grade to college. That number is between zero and 20; the higher it is, the better the chance to enter the college. Higher education in Portugal is divided into two main subsystems: university and polytechnic. The oldest university is the University of Coimbra founded in 1290, and the biggest by number of enrolled students in the University of Porto with about 28,000 students. The current public polytechnic subsystem was founded in the 1980s. Twenty-six percent of graduates in Portugal have degrees in sciences, engineering, medicine, law, pharmaceutical sciences, economics, psychology, technology, engineering, management, education and agriculture.CommunicationPortugal’s telephone system has achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a main line telephone density of 53%. Integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations. It has 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations – 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores.. Portugal’s telephone system has achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a main line telephone density of 53%. There are 4.139 million telephone lines estimated in 2015. Mobile phone use is prevalent throughout Portugal, and is significantly greater than residential fixed line use. There are several mobile phone service providers from whom to choose, among them Vodaphone. Internet access in Portugal is possible via dial-up service, dedicated lines, DSL and cable-modem. Dial-up service is the largest part of the market. Broadband Internet is available, but not as widespread as in some other European countries. Local television broadcasting is limited to approximately five Portuguese stations. These stations are also available on cable networks. Many news and movie programs on cable are broadcast in English with Portuguese subtitles. Cable TV is available in most metropolitan areas. Local AM and FM stations offer a full range of American and Portuguese music, as well as extensive newscasts in Portuguese.Section 3: CultureBusiness Practices• AppointmentsPortugal office hours are usually from 9:00 – 12:00pm and 2:00 – 6:00pm. Avoid making appointments earlier than 10:00 as people don’t tend to arrive on time and need to have their first coffee. Appointments as late as 6pm are acceptable. The best times for appointments are from 11am or 4pm. People do not like to make appointments a long time in advance (more than a week) but re-confirm the appointment a few days in advance. It is courteous to be on time for the agreed set time. If the meeting is taking place outside of the work place, it is not offense to be 20 minutes late, anything more is not appropriate.• NegotiatingThe general rule is to understand the cultural background first. Negotiating in Portugal takes time and is usually led in some sort of long lunches and social talks. Do not take statements verbal or written as given or even at face value. Meetings and documents are regarded as approximations and a first step towards wheeling and dealing.• Business EntertainingBreakfast meetings are not the best option as they find it to ruin the rest of the day. Lunch is the where most of the meeting take place and negotiations. Food is served family style. The guest of honor serves him/herself first and passes dishes around the table. It is polite to leave some food on your plate when finished eating. Dinner with business colleagues is a social event. Do not discuss business at dinner unless your host initiates it. When offered a drink by a business colleague (coffee, soda, alcohol), accept. Allow your host to open the door when it is time to leave. Portuguese generally never take business guests home. If you are invited as a guest to their home, it’s a sign of compliment and respect. Portuguese always pays for a foreign guest as its part of the culture and hospitality. At times you may be invited to go back to a bar or club. Women in attendance in meetings never pay and should not go to bars or clubs. It is looked up on as bad. It is better for a foreign woman to invite a Portuguese man to a business lunch rather than dinner. If you invite a man to dinner, it is better to ask if he would like to bring his wife.• LanguageMany younger managers speak reasonable English, if they don’t they will tell you. French is the usual third language. When speaking English or French, unless the person is totally fluent, speak slow and clearly and don’t use slang words or expressions. It is appreciated if you have correspondence translated and hire an interpreter for business meetings if necessary. Business Protocol• Greetings/Titles/Forms of AddressInitial greetings are reserved, yet polite and gracious. Shake hands with everyone present and address her/him by their title such as Mrs. or Mr. and last name. Shake hands again when leaving. Exchange business cards. Having a degree in Portugal entitles you to use Dr. and people like to be addressed in Dr. and if you have a doctorate you address the person as ProfessorGestures (non-verbal communication)• Friends often do handshakes• Greetings with friends and family are typically like we do here, quick handshake and a kiss on the check• Portuguese people never point with their finger• If you are going to a friends or family house, just bring a small gift as a thank you.• Business DressGenerally, the first meeting it is reasonably formal. Men normally wear a classic dark suit with a shirt and tie. Women wear plain suits. It is fine to take off your jacket at a meeting if it’s too hot. Never role up your sleeves unless they do. Being conscious of brands and accessories, people feel that clothing reflects status and success.• Appropriate Gifts/Gift GivingIn business, it is common but not necessary to give gifts to a prospective business partners or customers. Giving gifts from your own country or region is especially appreciated. Expensive gifts are not recommended unless it’s a good pen or a piece of porcelain. If you decline a gift from one another, it will most likely offend them. Section 4: Competitive and Absolute Advantage• Portugal’s has allot of natural resources such as • lots of fish, forests (cork),• copper ,• zinc , • gold, silver, The minimum wage in Portugal is roughly over 560 euros per each month.It is considerably lower than in some of the EU countriesIn Portugal workers earn more money in wine production. If Portugal would expand production of wine, the cloth industry would disappear 1 bottle of Portuguese wine can be exchanged for 1/5 bolt of Portuguese cloth5 bottles of Portuguese wine can be exchanged for 1 bolt of Portuguese cloth (5/5 of 100 = 100) Portugal is best known for the following:• Portuguese Wine• Cork Accessories• Portuguese Cheese• Portuguese Chouriço• Prescunto Section 5: International Organizationshttps://www.economist.com/news/21719753-socialists-say-their-keynesian-policies-are-working-others-fret-about-portugalsPortugal cuts its fiscal deficit while raising pensions and wagesThe Socialists say their Keynesian policies are working; others fret about Portugal’s debts Print edition | EuropeApr 1st 2017| LISBONNo one would have called António Costa, Portugal’s Socialist prime minister, a fiscal hawk when he took office in November 2015. After finishing second to the centre-right Social Democrats in an inconclusive general election, he cobbled together a coalition with the far left, promising to “turn the page on austerity”. Conservatives dubbed his pact with radicals and communists the geringonça, a term for an improbable contraption. He pledged both to reverse the austerity measures attached to Portugal’s bail-out during the euro crisis and to meet stiff fiscal targets. Many called it voodoo economics.Yet Mr Costa has kept his word. In 2016, according to figures released on March 24th, his government cut the budget deficit by more than half to just under 2.1% of GDP (see chart), the lowest since Portugal’s transition to democracy in 1974. His administration restored state pensions, wages and working hours to pre-bail-out levels, and also brought the deficit well under the 2.5% target set for it by the European Union. It is the first time that Portugal has complied with the euro zone’s fiscal rules.The government has grown accustomed to beating international forecasts: the finance ministry drily noted this week that the European Commission had been “gradually catching up with reality” as it adjusted its deficit projections steadily downwards in 2016. The economy has grown for 13 quarters, expanding at an annualised rate of 2% in the fourth quarter of last year. The left-wing pact that opponents expected to unravel within a year has endured, and polls put the Socialists ten percentage points ahead of the Social Democrats, a position of which Europe’s other centre-left leaders can only dream. “Mr. Costa has certainly defied expectations,” says Antonio Barroso of Teneo Intelligence, a risk consultancy. Mário Centeno, the finance minister, wants the EU to free Portugal from its excessive-deficit procedure, a disciplinary mechanism used to enforce the euro area’s fiscal rules. “Portugal would then join the club of successful ‘turnaround’ stories in the euro zone’s periphery, alongside Ireland and Spain,” says Federico Santi of the Eurasia Group, another consulting firm.The ultimate prize would be an investment-grade credit rating. Every rating agency apart from DBRS, a small Canadian firm, has classed Portugal’s sovereign debt as junk since the beginning of the country’s bail-out programme, which lasted from 2011 to 2014. Mr Centeno thinks their failure to recognise the strength of the recovery amounts to unfair treatment and burdens the government with high borrowing costs. Interest rates, he complains, absorb more of Portugal’s budget than of any other EU countries.Rating upgrades, however, may not be imminent. The European Commission warned this week that Portugal’s banks remain fragile. The government plans to inject €2.5bn ($2.7bn) to recapitalise state-owned Caixa Geral de Depósitos, the country’s largest bank, which could increase this year’s budget deficit. The sale of Novo Banco, the lender salvaged from the collapse of Banco Espírito Santo in 2014, is expected to be concluded shortly, but may also entail additional state liabilities. Mr. Costa blames the EU and the IMF for failing to provide enough aid to the financial sector during the bail-out, leaving his government, which has spent €4.4bn on bank rescues, to clear up the mess. But economists also remain concerned about public debt, which inched up to 131% of GDP last year despite the shrinking deficit.”The country’s high debt levels remain the elephant in the room,” says Mr. Barroso. Should the euro zone face a shock, such as Marine Le Pen winning France’s presidential election, Portugal is the country most likely to face a debt crisis, he thinks. The Portuguese tout the shrinking deficit as proof that their Keynesian approach to growth works. But until Mr. Costa shows that he can repeat last year’s budget success, many will remain sceptical. “Supporting domestic demand through a slightly looser fiscal policy may have paid off,” says Mr. Santi, “but it is no substitute for the structural reforms Portugal still needs.”This article appeared in the Europe section of the print edition under the headline “Growing out of it”Portugal’s Fiscal Deficit The administration has turned out to be normal to beating overall measures: the back administration ironically saw for this present week that the European Commission had been “well ordered getting up to speed with reality” as it adjusted its setback projections reliably downwards in 2016. In 2016, as demonstrated by figures released on March 24th, his organization cut the spending lack by the larger part to barely short of 2.1% of GDP, the most insignificant since Portugal’s advance to greater part in 1974. Each appraising office isolated from DBRS, somewhat Canadian firm has classed Portugal’s sovereign commitment as trash since the beginning of the country’s payment program, which continued going from 2011 to 2014. The administration means to inject €2.5bn ($2.7bn) to recapitalise state-had Caixa Geral de Depósitos, the country’s largest bank, which could build the present year’s spending deficit. “Portugal would then join the club of productive ‘turnaround’ stories in the euro zone’s periphery, near to Ireland and Spain,” says Federico Santi of the Eurasia Group, a complete prize would be a hypothesis audit FICO evaluation. Mário Centeno needs the EU to free Portugal from it’s over the top lack framework, a disciplinary instrument used to maintain the euro range’s financial standards. Should the euro zone go up against a stagger, for instance, Marine Le Pen winning France’s presidential choice, Portugal is the country well while in transit to face a commitment crisis, he considers. He guaranteed both to pivot the seriousness measures seized to Portugal’s save in the midst of the euro crisis and to meet firm money related targets. Be that as it may, monetary specialists similarly remain stressed over open commitment, which slithered up to 131% of GDP a year back regardless of the contracting failure. Nobody would have called António Costa, Portugal’s Socialist PM, a financial offer when he took office in November 2015.Section 6: Global Business Ethics and Social Responsibility• EnvironmentPortugal’s main issues are their air and water pollution. In Portugal their water supply has threatened by pollutants from the oil and cellulose industry.In Portugal due to their really hot climates throughout the day, they suffer from lots of forest fires in many area. When I went to Portugal this past summer, every time you would watch the news there is always forest fires.Workplace SafetyOccupational Safety and Health (OSH) with Authority Autoridade para as Condições do Trabalho (ACT)• In Portugal it is mandatory to set up an in-house safety service in companies with more than 400 employees or more than 30 exposed if they work doing a dangerous activity. Companies with less than 61 employees, has 1 representative, companies with 61-150 employees, has 2 representatives companies with 151-300 employees has 3 representatives, companies with 301-500 employees has 4 representatives, companies with 501-1000 employees has 5 representatives, companies with 1001-1500 employees has 6 representatives and companies with more than 1500 employees has 7 representatives.Human Rights (human rights abuses, child labour issues, gender issues Portugal is an example developed country • Child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. • Child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of working on the educational success of Portuguese children.• Portugal has always had a gender biased labour market to women.• Portugal has traditionally had high rates of female activity and employment• • Bribes, Corruption• Portugal is the 5th most corrupt country• Treatment of Labour (wages, working conditions etc)Minimum working conditions are specifically set out in the law in a wide range of aspects, from health and safety to minimum wage, maximum working hours, etc. Employers have to ensure that all employees are entitled to safe and proper working conditions. All employees are guaranteed a minimum monthly remuneration which is set annually by the Government. The 2017 minimum wage was EUR 557 per month (based on 14 payments a year). Portugal’s minimum wage is updated annually based on the cost of living, national productivity and the government’s prices and incomes policy. In terms of periodicity, monthly wages are the most common system of payment. All work requested by the employer and rendered by the employee outside normal working hours is considered overtime. Overtime worked on a normal working day entitles employees to increases in pay. The annual holiday entitlement is 22 working days. This can be subject to specific regulation in Collective Bargaining Agreements setting out longer holiday periods. The normal working hours may not exceed 8 per day or 40 per week. However, by means of a collective bargaining agreement the normal working hours may be increased by up to 4 hours per day, provided the work week does not exceed 60 hoursSection 7: ConclusionCanada and Portugal share common values in the areas of human rights, democracy, rule of law, and governance. Canada and Portugal work in partnership in various joint organizations including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and have worked alongside one another in international missions. In 2013, trade between Canada and Portugal totaled (CAD) $611.8 million. Canada’s exports to Portugal amounted to $236.6. Aerospace products, cereals, machinery and parts, iron and steel, and vegetables; were among the leading export goods from Canada to Portugal. Imports from Portugal in 2013 amounted to $375.2 million. Beverages (wine), mineral fuels and oils, footwear, electrical and electronic machinery and equipment and furniture; were among leading import goods from Portugal to Canada. Canadian investment in Portugal is active in the ICT, rail transportation and mining sectors. The number of Canadian companies in Portugal’s mining sector in particular has grown greatly in recent years and currently represents the main presence in this area.