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In the seventeenth century, after conducting a series of experiments, Isaac Newton was able to define seven basic colors in the visible spectrum; red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Each hue is visible due to differences of wavelengths, red having the longest wavelengths and violet the shortest.
Colors in light are additive, in that when the primaries consisting of red, green, and blue (RGB) overlapping, you’ll get lighter secondaries: cyan, magenta, and yellow. In theory, when all three primaries are combined, they mix to white. The additive system of primary hues is often used in things like color television, computer monitors, and projected/stage lighting.
Pigment colors are different from ones seen in light, in that they absorb certain wavelengths while others are reflected by the pigments. When specific wavelengths are reflected into the human eye, it causes us to “see” that color of the wavelength.
Pigment colors are subtractive, so when they’re overlapping with each-other they create darker secondaries. Unlike the additive system, the subtractive system is broken up into two versions.
The first subtractive system is used for digital printing processes, toners, and inks. Its primaries are cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY,) while the secondaries are red, green and blue.
The second part is used in traditional artistic processes involving paints and dyes. It’s primaries consist of red, yellow, blue (RYB,) the secondaries being orange, green, and purple. In theory, both subtractive systems mix to black when all colors are combined.
The standard 12-color wheel of pigment hues has three primaries (red, blue, yellow,) three secondaries (orange, green, purple,) and mixtures of the proximate primaries and secondaries known as tertiaries. Around 1905, theorist and painter Albert Munsell proposed that there are five pigment primaries, which he referred to as principal hues, green, blue, purple, red, and yellow; resulting in a 10-color wheel. He then developed the wheel into a three-dimensional model, known as the “Munsell Color System,” that shows the relationships of color. Hues are positioned around a vertical axis that represents value changes, and saturation is measured outward from the axis. 
Hue is the name of a color that can be determined by its wavelength. Value is the lightness or darkness in a color. Saturation (or chroma) is the vibrance or dullness, strength or grayness of the hue.

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