Labelling helps to keep track the amount of carbohydrates,

Labelling
requires all “Pre-packaged” or “Pre-packed food” to comply with the labelling
requirements and regulations as per Indian Food Safety and Standards (Packaging
and labelling) Regulations, 2011. Nutritional Information / nutritional facts
as per 100 grams or 100 ml or per serving of the food product must be given on
the label along with the following information mentioned below:

1.    
Energy
Value in Kilo Calorie;

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2.    
The
amount of carbohydrates, protein and fats in gram or ml;

3.    
The
amount of other nutrient which may affect or of which health claim has been
made on the label:

The
‘health claim’ / ‘nutrition claim’ / ‘risk reduction’ claim made in the label
of the product will be scrutinised by the FSSAI authorities. Such claims are
validated by the FSSAI on the basis of Lab Reports.

The
label also carries information like Manufacturer Name, Brand Name, Veg/Non Veg
Symbol, Food Additives, Colours, Flavours, Net Quantity, Lot Number, Batch
Number and Identification Number, Country of Origin, Instruction for Use etc.

Labels
are also the free space for marketing of the product. Various inciting offers,
discounts, cashback, free products information are given on the label.

Nutritional labels simplify the concept of healthy eating. It also helps to
keep track the amount of carbohydrates, fat, sugar, and other nutrients. It
allows consumers to make an informed judgement about the product and the nutrition
value it have.

Since,
the nutritional label is a guide healthy diet and healthier life. Customers can
use nutritional label to make decision about the food product as per the Dietary
Guidelines by health experts.

As per
the FDA (1999), nutritional information on the label of food product allows
consumers to, eat variety of nutrients foods, maintain a healthy lifestyle, to choose
a less saturated fat and cholesterol free diet, choose a diet with green
vegetables, fruits, etc. Consumers can also use the health claims made by the
manufacturer, shown on the label of the product, with certain nutritional values
related to health risk factors and wellness of body.

Nutritional
labelling can affect the consumer buying behaviour significantly. Evidences shows
that nutritional information can allow consumers to change consumption from
‘unhealthy’ food choices to ‘healthy’ food choices. Consumers’ decision about
their dietary habits depends partly on quality and quantity of information
given on the food label.

If the
food products are not labelled properly (design, structure, presentation of
information, etc.) consumers may not able to differentiate between the product
and the positive effects of it. Customers perceive the health and nutrition
benefit as per the advertising and marketing of the product. Also, the another
side of this is, customer eventually overestimates or underestimates the
content and benefit of particular nutrient and then form perception about it.

This may have a positive effect, if the consumer is satisfied. However, if the
things go opposite, and consumer is not satisfied it may lead to ‘product
failure’ or ‘brand failure’.

In
India, under section 23 of The Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006: “No person
shall manufacture, distribute, sell or expose for sale or despatch or deliver
to any agent or broker for the purpose of sale, any packaged food products
which are not marked and labelled in the manner as may be specified by
regulations”. Labelling is regulatory requirement for a product to sell, and is
mandated by law.

Consumers
have a better choice for the money they spend because of the number of
competitor for the same category of product. Therefore, it is logical to study
the behaviour of consumer perception and her buying behaviour due the nutrition
label on the product. Given this background, the research is carried out with
the objective of identifying the relationship between nutrition label and
consumer buying behaviour.

In India,
NIP (Nutrition Information Panel) is mandatory requirements in food and
beverages packaging. NIP are also act as tool for providing information about
the product, nutrition level, discounts, marketing, etc. In research, it has
been found that customers with pre condition of disease tend to buy the food
products by checking the nutrition labels.

2.

Literature Review

People
tend to check nutritional labels of food products they are intended to buy and
compare the labels between different brands or products. People are interested
in specific nutrients and the interest is based on knowledge of ‘healthy
eating’ or ‘special dietary needs’.

Defining
what is meant by “the use of nutritional label” has been a multi-dimensional
issue. This review indicates the questions guiding these definitions -at least
from the previous researchers’ standpoints (NorhidayahAzman, Siti Zaleha Sahak,
2013).

While
we would like to offer better evidence on the importance of food labels’
third-party roles, such evidence is simply not yet available. The framework
described here offers an approach for developing that evidence. In the
meantime, it is important that these roles be recognized both in forming the
research agenda and in the significant episode of policy formulation now
underway (Toward a More Comprehensive Theory of Food Labels: Caswell and
Padberg, 1992).

It
appears from the analysis that mandating nutritional labels on processed foods
may help consumers improve their food or dietary choices (see section on
nutritional information and dietary changes). In general, studies cited in the
previous section show that the effect of information is positive on several
beneficial nutrient components (e.g. fiber) and negative on harmful components
such as fat, cholesterol etc. (Consumers’ Use of Nutritional Labels:
Drichoutis, Lazaridis and Nayga, 2006).

A major
effect of the 1990 amendments is likely to be a revision of consumer beliefs
about the nutrient content of food, which will cause changes in food purchases.

Demand for foods containing “less healthful” nutrients (e.g.,
saturated fat and cholesterol) whose contents were not previously labelled
voluntarily may decrease if the new mandated labelling changes cause consumers
to learn they have underestimated the content of these nutrients in these
products. Similarly, the demand for foods containing “more healthful”
nutrients (e.g. fibre) that were not previously labelled may decrease with the
implementation of the 1990 amendments as consumers realize that they
overestimated the content of these nutrient (Consumer and Producer Responses to
Nutrition Label Changes: Gary and Anderson, 1992).

Other
results also reinforce the importance of the NLEA educational objective of
increasing consumers’ nutrition knowledge. As hypothesized, nutrition knowledge
interacts with nutrition value such that consumers with high knowledge had
higher evaluations and purchase likelihood for a product with high nutrition
value and lower evaluations and likelihood for a product with low nutrition
(Effects of Alternative Nutrition Label Formats and Nutrition Reference
Information on Consumer Perceptions, Comprehension, and Product Evaluations:
Scot Burton, Abhijit Biswas and Richard Netemeyer, 1994).

In
prior studies, costs of labelling regulations may also have been too narrowly
conceived, primarily as compliance costs. Recent work by French and Neighbours
suggests that such compliance costs, while sometimes large, can typically be
absorbed in the normal label-change cycle if the compliance period is
sufficiently long. No empirical estimates are available on the broader economic
costs society may incur from loss of business flexibility, or potential loss of
consumer product choice associated with more extensive labelling regulation.

Comprehensive evaluation of alternative labelling regimes requires quantifying
these costs. The framework described here offers an approach for developing
that evidence (Toward a More Comprehensive Theory of Food Labels: Caswell and
Padberg, 1992).

Beyond
these, a key question that has not been answered by our literature review, and
therefore requires further research, is whether consumers demand nutritional
information when eating out and, if they do, under what conditions. For
example, many consumers dine out not only to satisfy hunger, but also for the
atmosphere and for other social reasons beyond nutritional considerations.

Consumers may also regard eating out as an opportunity to eat more and
restaurants are judged negatively if they serve too small portions.

Furthermore, requiring restaurants to provide nutritional information for their
menus will incur costs similar to the costs incurred with packaged food
products (Consumers’ Use of Nutritional Labels: Drichoutis, Lazaridis and
Nayga, 2006).