James, N., & Edward, B. (2008).
Advertising to Bilinguals: Does the Language of Advertising Influence the
Nature of Thoughts?. Journal Of Marketing, (5), 69.
In the article “Advertising to
Bilinguals: Does the Language of Advertising Influence the Nature of Thoughts” the authors Jaime Noriega and Edward Blair
argue that how the choice of language for the advertisement affects the nature
of thoughts. Jaime Noriega earned his doctorate from the University of Houston
in 2006 with major in Marketing and a Minor in Psychology. He teaches marketing
courses at DePaul University in Chicago and has been conducting research in
cross cultural communication. Edward Blair is professor of Marketing and
Entrepreneurship in C.T. Bauer College, University of Houston. The authors
argue that two different languages are likely to be differentially associated
with an individual that knows more than one language whose experiences among
families and friends are likely to cue with self-referent with these
experiences with a possible implication for persuasion. One aspect based on
which the authors examine relationship between choice of language and the
resultant thought in persuasion is consumption.
The flow of research indicates that it may be more effective to
advertise to members of a minority group in the native language based on their
culture. The author initially examines different perspective on language and
memory, and how language and the contexts intersect. The result of the first
half of the model showed only the interaction between language and context was
significant and the contradictory contamination solidified the relative thought
over any other conditions. Although factors like place of birth, use of local
language and self-related native language did not have significant effects. Talking
about the second half of the model, the hypothesis displayed a decent fit. The results
of the final model showed that the interaction between two variables, language
and consumption contexts were positive and significant.
They reported two studies to test the hypotheses that was
conducted, the first hypotheses being that “Native-language advertisements elicit a higher proportion of FFHH (Family,
Friends, Home or Homeland)-related thoughts than second-language advertisements.” (Noriega and Blair, 2008), the second being
that the phenomenon predicted in the first hypotheses is moderated by context
such that the effect is strong for advertisements in native-language contexts
than for those in second-language contexts. And lastly “A rise in the proportion of FFHH-related thoughts
results in more positive attitudes toward the ad and the brand and higher purchase
intentions.” (Noriega and
The results for
study 1 showed that 10.5% of the translate condition related to FFHH whereas
only 1.6% in the no-translate condition did. Hence, the results sustained the
first hypotheses. The results for study 2 showed positive support for all three
hypotheses. For further validation, an additional study was carried out in
which they examined the pattern of thoughts. The results showed that there were
more FFHH-related thoughts when there was a reference to a native-language
compared to when there wasn’t.
In conclusion, the
article was filled with many fascinating arguments and research although there
were a few limitations. Furthermore, the statistical data provided was very
complexed and wasn’t very authentic since the research was done on
a small group of people out of the 50 million people in the country. Moreover, direct
instructions were given to the participants before the study which could
potentially restrict their initial thoughts and could also lead them to feel obliged
to give a specific type of answer which could also lead to them being nervous.
But overall, the idea of the article itself was well written and interesting to
read and was informative.