James thus keep the majority from tyrannizing the minority.

Madison starts Federalist 51 by stating that the proposed structure of
government will help liberty flourish. Then, he goes on to state, and argue
for, the mechanics of this proposed structure. First, all systems must be
independent of one another, meaning that one branch should not have too much
power over another. However, this does not mean that each branch should be
elected by the people. In particular, he is referring to the judicial branch on
account of the legal knowledge required to effectively hold a position in this
branch. In order for branches to be independent of one another, they must not
be dependent on one another. This entails Constitutional protections for their
salary, power, and other factors of their position. In order to ensure this, we
need a government that is not only able to govern the people, but is also
obligated to govern itself. While the legislative body has the largest
concentration of power, which is common in most republics, it must also be
checked to ensure this balance.

then goes on to discuss the importance of making sure that the majority does
not tyrannize the minority. One way of avoiding this is to construct a “community
will” that does not tend to the majority. However, this is not a real solution
on account of there being no way of keeping this “community will” from going
against the best interest of the public. Instead, we should allow many
factions. A diversity of ideas will keep one idea from dominating the others,
and thus keep the majority from tyrannizing the minority. He then goes on to
argue that the purpose of government is justice and to protect against anarchy.
Additionally, even the strongest will submit to government because of the
threat of anarchy. Unfortunately, this means that even the strongest will
submit to a government, even when it is bad. He then reiterates that a system
of checks and balances is important and how this proposed system makes it

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