Jade PurifoyHist 311The national movements of the 1960’sIf you were black, white, female, gay, lesbian, or anything besides a white male the 1960s was very hard place to live. It was a time where anything or everything would go wrong. There would be fights on one side of the country and strikes or Rally’s on the other side. America in general has had its difficulties however in the 1960’s people began organizing and actively working for change both in the social order and in government this included the student movement, the women’s movement, movement for gay rights and a push by the chords to expand rights in general. Specifically two movements with two different kind of people began to transform American society. The first movement was the civil rights movement. The end of the American Civil War in 1865 effectively meant the end of slavery but african americans were in for a long struggle before they were finally awarded equal rights. In the early 1900s WEB DuBois and others created the National Association for the advancement of colored people or the NAACP. The goal of this group was to challenge racist laws in court. “The association filed lawsuits against states that excluded blacks from publicly funded law schools and universities” (620) NAACP action brought many important civil rights cases to the Supreme Court. In 1951 African American Oliver Brown sued his local school board because his daughter was forced to travel a great distance to attend an african-american school when a white school was just blocks from his house. In 1954 the Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were unconstitutional and shortly after ordered southern school boards to desegregate quickly. “African Americans sought to integrate schools not because they wanted their children to sit next to white students and and adopt their ways, but because they believed that integration offered the best and quickest way to secure quality education.” (620) Desegregation faced great resistance Orval Faubus the governor of Arkansas promised that segregation would continue in his state. However nine African-American students told him differently. These students tried to attend a high school in Little Rock. As they were doing so Faubus called in the State National Guard to stop them. When violence erupted President Eisenhower sent federal troops to restore the peace. Around this time another effort to end segregation took place in 1955 Rosa Parks was riding a bus in Montgomery Alabama as she refused to give her seat to a white man she then became arrested as well as a face for the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King jr another face for the civil rights movement, helped organized a boycott against the city buses for more than a year. African Americans refused to ride these buses. Around 1965 the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional these important events began a peaceful movement that aimed to end unequal treatment for African-Americans. Though The Civil Rights Movement was a huge impact on America politically and socially. Another movement became a cultural political and social impact, was the gay rights movement. “In the 1950s, Gay men and women created their own political and cultural organization and frequented Bars and taverns outside mainstream commercial cultural, but most lesbians and gay men like bayard Rustin hid their identities” (655) To america and nations all across the globe gays and lesbians were invisible to the rest of society. It wasn’t until the late 1960s their voices began to be heard. This movement made a huge impact everywhere. Through churches, through homes, it changed what americans thought they knew about traditional values. It changed the way people thought how we were created as a human race in general . Catholics christians or basically any type of religion believed that homosexuals were not of god and are the devil’s making. This type of small thinking created friction between homosexuals and heterosexuals. though gay men and lesbians fought back in 1969 in the stonewall riots this didn’t mean that the fight was over. “In the decades following the 1960s gay men and lesbians face discrimination in employment could not marry or receive the domestic benefits and we’re subject to violence for public displays of affection” (656) Just like many other subdued groups Gays have and continue to win their fights slowly but surely.