Isotopes thickness of metal sheetsCarbon DatingMedicine:Most recentRadiopharmaceuticals also called

Isotopes are the same element but always have different Atomic masses and different amounts of neutrons but they all have the same Atomic number and the same amount of protons and electrons.Isotope usesMedicineTracersMeasuring thickness of metal sheetsCarbon DatingMedicine:Most recentRadiopharmaceuticals also called medicinal radio compounds are a type of pharmaceutical drugs that contain radioactivity. Radiopharmaceuticals can be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. So they can inspect and treat patients using isotopes And many more medicinesNuclear drugs/medicine uses radiation to give diagnostic information about the functioning of someone’s organs, or how to treat them. Radioisotope demands are growing up to 5% annually, every year around 40 million nuclear drug/medicine procedures happen. Some types of Medical conditions are treated by using Radiotherapy, The biggest medical condition is cancer, using radiation to weaken or kill particular targeted cells. It is now a routine when doing Diagnostics to use Radioisotopes. Cleaning of medical equipment is also an important use of radioisotopes.Tracer:It looks at any radioactive atom detectable in a material inside a chemical, biological, or physical system and marks the material for research and to study, to observe it’s progress through the system, or to determine its distribution. An isotopic tracer has to behave like the material being traced, but it also has to have some different property so it can be detected in the area of the other material. The movement of a chemical element being researched can be traced by adding a Radioisotope with the same element. The radiations given by that radioisotope can be tracked by using radiation detection devices, like Geiger-Müller counters or scintillation detectors. Radioisotopes can be found in quantities as small as a few atoms. Radioactive tracers are used a lot in science, engineering, and medicine in almost any problem to determine the distribution pattern or the rate of material transport. Isotope dilution is when radioisotopes are turned into stable isotopes of the same element and mixes and is a great used technique for finding out the volume of a system.To measure the areas of the human blood system or of an industrial tank, a minute amount of radioactive tracer is added and mixed uniformly throughout the system; then a bit of known volume is taken from the system and measured for the amount of radioactive tracer it contains. The ratio of it to the amount originally found is proportional to the volume of the entire system.Measuring thickness of metal sheets:In industries that specify in making materials that have the thickness of paper like plastic films, aluminium foil, steel etc. Beta radiations are used to measure and control the thickness of materials. For example Strontium 90 is a radioisotope used for researching materials. It’s important to know the parts of the radioisotope when choosing its use. Although there are different radioisotopes which give beta radiation, their parts may not be the best for use in a manufacturing environment. Strontium 90 has a half life around 29 years; it means the radioactive source for the thickness controller doesn’t need regular replacements. This is good in a manufacturing environment, it means the processing line does not need to be interrupted regularly to replace the source. Also it means that the user doesn’t have to constantly worry about disposing of a radioactive material. Another property of Strontium 90 is the beta particles resulting from its decay are moderate in energy and it reduces the chance of exposure to any workers in its area.It’s important to know the parts of a radioisotope when finding its use. The main parts to consider are:The half life – A long half life in equipment uses the radioisotope as a radiation source like smoke detectors and thickness control. This lowers the frequency of replacement and waste. Short half life radioisotopes are for tracer use and radiotherapy.The penetrating properties – When using thickness control, alpha rays are not capable because they are stopped by a thin sheet of paper. Gamma rays are the most powerful of the radiations and would not be suitable in tasks where thickness control is up to a few millimeters because they would all go through. Beta rays are mostly used as they have enough energy to go through thin sheets of metal.The energy of the beta emission – Radioisotopes can emit beta radiation at different energies like low, medium to high energies. It’s important to know the energy of the emission so that people exposed to the source can take the exact level of precautions and protection.Carbon Dating:Carbon-14 is a weakly radioactive isotope of Carbon; also called a radiocarbon, it is an isotopic chronometer. C-14 dating doesn’t work on metal, only on organic and some inorganic materialsGas proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, and accelerator mass spectrometry are the three radiocarbon dating methods.C14 dating labs use (Oxalic Acid I) and (Oxalic Acid II) as modern uses.Radiocarbon measurements are reported to be Conventional Radiocarbon Age.Radiocarbon, or carbon 14, is an isotope of the element carbon that is unstable and weakly radioactive. The stable isotopes are carbon 12 and carbon 13.Radiocarbon dating is a method that gives exact age estimates for carbon-based materials that came from living organisms. An age could be estimated by measuring the amount of carbon-14 present in the sample and comparing it against a worldly used reference.Carbon 14 is continually being formed in the upper atmosphere by the effect of cosmic ray neutrons in nitrogen 14 atoms. It is rapidly oxidized in air to form carbon dioxide and enters the global carbon cycle.Plants and animals take carbon 14 from carbon dioxide during their lifetimes. When they die, they stop exchanging carbon with the biosphere and their carbon 14 starts decreasing at a rate made by the law of radioactive decay.