Introduction: things I will be discussed is the history


The purpose of writing this task is
to go through all roles, and parts of an engineering profession in society. The
initial segment will be a composed reflection. With this in mind, engineering
profession is an important factor nationwide. The things I will be discussed is
the history of engineering and how it started. Also, the development of
engineering profession, and how it is being improved, and how it bullied up its
own orders.

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Secondly The reflection will be
about levels and structures of the engineering profession. In addition,
engineering diversity, culture and the roles will be discussed. Also, the
improvement and development over time in profession improvement. Including what
is the responsibility of an engineering, how a specialist is associated with
the general society, and what they involved in.

The third piece of the task will be
a contextual investigation that displays an instance of negligence. The
occasion of negligence will be examined and the occasions which happened will
be specified. As well as, some issues and a few solutions to prevent this from
happening and the avoidance of them.


History of the profession and the development of
engineering discipline:

. The word engineering has
been used since the 1600, with this in mind the back ground of the engineering
profession begun 100s of years ago

Until 1600, proficient engineers
were alluded as researchers, directors or business visionaries. The word Latin
word “ingeniatorium”. “Ingeniator” was linked connected to
military designers from about the season of the Norman Conquest of Britain in


By 1592, “enginer”
portrayed a planner of expressions or scholar. From 1600, later varieties of
the word including “ingenier” and “engyner” were utilized
to portray developers and producers of things.


The roots of
“design” is by all accounts all the more firmly identified with the
English word “smart” (which means strong, clever and creative) as
opposed to “motor”.


From the above, unmistakably
the beginnings of the English word “build” and the German word
“ingenieur” are fundamentally the same as and show a brilliant
individual who is astute, capable and creative.

late 1800s A Faculty of Two:

Edison’s thought, including the
offer of an endowment of hardware for a showing historical centre, worked on it
for almost 10 years as Columbia authorities thought of how such a train would
work with the material science and designing instructed at the School of Mines.
Should the approach be pragmatic or hypothetical?


At long last, in 1889, Columbia’s
trustees chosen to build up a division of electrical designing, offering two
years of graduate examination to understudies who had finished the standard
four-year mines educational modules.


The initial two employees spoke to
the contrary posts of hypothesis and practice. Francis Bacon Crocker2 had
extensive experience with industry as organizer of the Crocker-Wheeler Electric
Motor Company while Michael Idvorsky Pupin3 was a splendid Serbian migrant and
physicist via preparing.

Late 1900s: A
Four-Year Program:

Only three years after the fact, in
1892, the youngster office was putting forth a four-year college degree
program, and throughout the following decade it thrived. From 1901 to 1904,
class measure developed from five to 30, and the staff multiplied to four.

By the mid twentieth century, the
whole building school had moved to Morningside Heights alongside whatever is
left of the University, and Pupin set up his storied research facility, the
Marcellus Hartley Laboratory, in the cellar of Philosophy Hall, where he
regulated the advancement of enduring commitments to electrical designing. It
was there that Edwin Howard Armstrong did the vast majority of his work,
including making a collector and radio transmitter that brought about FM.

World Wars: Motors and Radio:

Under the administration of Walter
Slichter, who led the office from 1910-1941, Columbia engineers assumed a key
part in giving the U.S. an edge in radio interchanges and electrical
innovation. A center gathering of workforce drove the way, including Slichter,
Morton Arendt, John H. Morecroft and the amazing Armstrong. Read more about the

and Radio Communications:

Armstrong, CC’13 HON’29, totally
altered radio correspondences. When he kicked the bucket in 1954, the
workforce’s remembrance determination acknowledged him for five “age
making” developments. These incorporated the regenerative identifier, created
while he was as yet an undergrad; the super-regenerative and super-heterodyne
circuits; wideband FM radio; and FM multiplexing.


Armstrong’s life was ordinary of
that of a determined virtuoso. He worked seriously and won many honors and
privileged degrees for the duration of his life. For his commitments to the
U.S. war exertion amid both world wars – he rose to the rank of major amid
World War I – he was respected by both the American and French governments.


The rundown of his developments and
significant respects is long and incorporates the Medal of Honor from the
Institute of Radio Engineering, 1917; the Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur in
1919 from the French government; the first-historically speaking Armstrong
Award from the Radio Club of America, named after him to respect his
accomplishments in radio, in 1935; Columbia’s Egleston Medal in 1939; the
Holley Medal from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1940; the
Franklin Medal from the Franklin Institute, 1941; the Edison Medal from the
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1942; and in 1947, the Medal for
Merit with a presidential reference, the most astounding regular citizen grant
given by the U.S. government. Read more about Armstrong.5

Period: The Golden Era of Systems and Control Theory:

The 1950s and ’60s introduced a
period of dangerous development, with a solid surge of graduate direction and
doctoral research. Out of the blue, understudies could gain a PhD in building
science, and Columbia doctoral understudies went ahead to wind up pioneers in
the field.

Among them was John R. Ragazzini,
who joined the staff in 1941 and furthermore filled in as division seat. In
1945 Ragazzini and his partners exhibited an “operational
intensifier,” which later turned into a key building square of electronic

Other departmental stars included
Ralph J. Schwarz, Lotfi A. Zadeh and Jacob Millman, writer of an original
course reading in gadgets. Due to a great extent to their endeavors, this
period ended up plainly known as a brilliant time of exercises in frameworks
and controls. Read more about these specialists and their contributions.6








1970s: The Modern Era Emerges:

The transistor, advanced gadgets,
PCs – these developments were quickly expanding the universe of the electrical
architect in the 1970s. While Columbia had turned out to be known in the past
two decades for its hypothetical commitments, the ’70s saw an arrival to trial
parts of electrical building, incorporating research in strong state gadgets,
plasma material science, millimetre waves and coordinated circuits.


In the meantime, the office started
to create vital long haul associations with industry, government and other
scholastic foundations, particularly in correspondences, hardware, current
radar building and related fields. Two key contracts were S. A. Schelkunoff and
W. R. Bennett, both of Bell Laboratories, who made critical commitments in
electromagnetic hypothesis and correspondence hypothesis, individually.


With the development of
computerized registering, the division was renamed Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science in 1968. It returned to its unique name in 1979 when the
University made another branch of software engineering.


One breakthrough of the cutting
edge period was the making of the Center for Telecommunications Research
(1985-97), financed by the National Science Foundation and mechanical
accomplices to lead central and connected research in rapid correspondence
frameworks. The middle was the brainchild of Mischa Schwartz, who drove a
re-established burst of movement.





and Writing:

Other than a rich heritage of
mechanical developments, employees have distributed more than 70 course
readings since Pupin himself composed his Pulitzer Prize-winning personal
history, From Immigrant to Inventor. Together, Jacob Millman and Mischa
Schwartz have a consolidated aggregate of 16 top rated writings. As their work
and that of others has been converted into remote dialects, Columbia designing
has accomplished worldwide strength.

In 1983, the centennial year of the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a survey of the calling was taken to
choose the main 10 specialized givers, mechanical donors and teachers for a
centennial corridor of distinction. Of the 10 teachers, three of them – more
than at some other establishment – were Columbia workforce: Pupin, Millman and
Schwartz. Also, showing up at the highest priority on the rundown of 10
unsurpassed best specialized donors – in a tie with William B. Shockley, the
designer of the transistor – was Edwin Howard Armstrong.












Diversification of engineering:

There are verity paths inside the
Engineering profession, a few cases of a couple of specializations of engineers


Synthetic Engineering usually use
their insight into science, science and material science to remove and make
oil, oil and to create new things, an example can be seen, plastic that is
universally spread as one of the biggest utilized items. Concoction builds
additionally create the compound we use in aging, horticulture and even in
conservation of items.


Electrical Engineers deliver complex
electrical circuits and frameworks. Their part is to make conceivable the
wiring of lights and energy to regions and urban areas and also tackling issues
inside these territories. Electrical architects are likewise in charge of media
transmission frameworks and furthermore for the creation of numerous electrical


Mechanical Engineers are included
inside the art of engine building and moving mechanical power into electrical
power. They are additionally in charge of many transport frameworks and
furthermore vast business machines to make less demanding the life of people,
taking into account substantial procedures to wind up plainly speedier and less
demanding with the utilization of machines.


Structural Engineers are associated
with the formation of open works. This implies they are in charge of the
development, outline and upkeep of streets, railroads, structures, trenches and
so forth.


Taking everything into account, the
part of all Engineers together are what make the general public, science and
innovation as progress as it has moved toward becoming today. To better
comprehend the part of designers in the public arena, we should investigate the
history and improvement of the Engineering calling.





There is heaps of professional
engineers with verity of academic degrees, responsibility on some projects. The
distinguish from professional engineers and standard is an important matter.
The most significant factor is how engineers solve the problems they face and
how avoided danger from happening:

Professional Engineer

Engineers always take a disciplined, holistic approach to
consist many different parts and connect them. With this in mind they have to
be capable of finding or suggesting solution to avoid risks from happening.
They must be professional when it comes to judgments and lead in the



To be an engineering technologist need to have a good
background to come up with usful solution and able to do a practical
application. They must be familiar with new developments on what they work on,
so they can work in their fields of professional engineers.

Engineering Technicians

Engineering technicians must have a good understanding and background
about standards and codes of practice. Their knowledge is basically a practical
nature than theoretical that held by engineers and engineer’s technologists.
Table below shows levels of the profession.

Engineering Culture:


Engineers are usually mixed of cultures, ages and genders. This is why
differences bring for us many different plans, solutions and ideas to overcome
any unexpected danger. Because it is important for engineers to be able to work
in a team work, combine their knowledge to help achieving new goals, which is a
beneficial way for everyone. However, engineers need to be smart and awake to
predict and avoid accidents.

Language and jargon

Gender roles or specific cultural engagement.

Perceived power structure within a group

Cultural business customs varying across




Role of the Engineer within
Industry and Companies:

industry engineers are directed toward customers, toward manager, toward
different architects, and toward the general public which is essential piece of
the life of an expert specialist. Contemporary designers need to achieve a
scope of parts through the course of a profession which incorporates:


venture supervisor, architect, site delegate, group pioneer, examiner,
specialized counselor, advisor, industry contact


parts have numerous desires which should be adjusted so as to settle on right
and dread choice for all gatherings those engaged with a task. engineers today
work in diffuse and various groups, frequently a cross time zones and national
outskirts. . In the meantime, the specialist’s issues are being called upon to
be comprehended, have turned out to be bigger and more unpredictable. These
difficulties incorporate:


•          Governmental confinements and


•          Society desires


•          Management desires


•          Technological restrictions and


•          Health and security enactment

•          Ethical choices


are relied upon to take after arrangement of standards and controls, applying
wellbeing and security and morally based choices are the main requirements
those will oversee the achievement for the parts above. As specified some time
recently, the dependable direct towards society and customers is the centre of


Role of institution and in career development to
your ongoing career:

fundamental part for institution are to give a level of judgment to the
individual so he/she can comprehend their part as an Engineer and can play out
his/her work in reality to details and necessities alongside a specific level
of competency. This empowers the general public to confide in the yield being
conveyed by these experts alongside ensuring that these works are being done
effectively and meeting every one of the prerequisites, similar to security,
costing, consistence, and so on. By Institutions we can allude to Universities
alongside building national bodies that guide in speaking to designers’
enthusiasm for the nation.


With the
presence of Universities, engineers can encourage their licensed innovation and
handle more mind boggling ventures/issues which contributes emphatically
towards the general public. With national bodies that speaks to the architect’s
enthusiasm to the nation, this can help specialists to work in abroad nation
and enables screen/to uphold capability, moral benchmarks for calling in
accordance with worldwide practice. Building has new progressions that are made
much of the time, new programming projects to make work less demanding,
speedier and more exact, in this manner being refreshed with changes and new
specialized aptitudes are a need. These establishments encourage for new
progressions and keep experts refreshed, particularly if the models or set of
principles changes.




Future roles for engineering:

propensity for general profession movement inside a designing setting has a
tendency to be from the specialized nature to a more administrative, warning
part. Junior architects need to adjust to take in the specialized parts of the
business while being tutored adequately be more senior partners. As experience
is picked up the capacity to hold greater duty and administration, group
pioneer parts, incorporating spend significant time in certain activity
perspectives creates. Senior designers are frequently empowered into
administrative, oversight parts in which the everyday specialized nature
reduces while a more organization asset centre creates.

architects should be taught and hone in such a way so they can play out their
parts in an expert way in the worldwide condition, being socially, ecologically
and monetarily mindful of their choices. The present designers are the future
architects, so they will be required to see all the more generally and be in
charge of additional extensive choices.


political field is a territory where engineers are not generally prepared,
however with the level of specialized understanding architects have, this
learning should be offered as a powerful influence for the approach making at
legislative and committee level to change our future for the better on
preserving assets as well as empowering an economical future.

Part B: Negligence and Accidents: