INTRODUCTION surface area for the immobilization of bio-element and



Sensors can be found in everyday life applications
like touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamp dimmer surfaces that have a response
to touch. However, there are many types of sensors for instance sensors that
are used in robotics, aerospace, and for medicinal purposes, etc are have not
gained much of popularity. In all these sensors many efforts are still being
made to improve lower sensitivity, sensing of bulk materials, lower exposed
surface to the analyte, problems in bio-conjugation, higher limit of detection,
large amount of sample required, requires expertise, higher cost; large area is
required for sensor installations, sensitivity greatly affected by the
environmental conditions, low range of detection. However, nanotechnology
played an important role in solving some of the problems related to the
biosensors. Similarly, with the increasing interest in FRET-based sensors,
despite significant research work on the technology, there are some gaps in the
literature with regards to standardized testing. First is the lack of
established test methods, through rigorous performance evaluation of FRET
biosensors. Published studies have been implemented as “on-off”
evaluations in individual studies and there is little consistency among prior
studies in evaluating the performance of FRET-based sensors. Therefore, there
is a need to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of FRET-based sensors.
This motivates for the use of graphene and graphene quantum dots in FRET-based
sensors due to their unique properties.

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But now, if we talk about graphene-based sensors the
major problem is the stacking of the graphene layers which causes the reduction
of surface area for the immobilization of bio-element and reduces the
sensitivity of the sensor. To solve this problem we can increase the surface
area of the material by intercalation of some nanoparticles between the layers
of graphene which will increase the surface area for the attachment of the
bio-element on its surface and another thing is modification of the electrodes
with some coatings and we can make hybrid nanostructures which will increase
the transfer of electrons and increases the sensitivity of the sensor.