Introduction This essay is going to show the sociological perspective form the foundation of the study of society. The essay is going to show 2 different theories, functionalism which will show an evaluation on social order, and Marxism which will show an evaluation on exploitation/false consciousness. Functionalism and Social Order Functionalism is a theory that was developed by Emile Durkheim and later refined by Talcott Parsons. (Haralambos, Holborn, Chapman, and Moore 2013). The theory looked at the functions of society, and how it needs to behave to function effectively. One of the areas looked at was social order. Social order is the behaviour of society that is expected, predictable and normal. In order for social order to be achieved society needs to have norms and values, which then gives society structure. The advantage of social order is that it gives society structure. This structure helps society to function properly and to survive. Social order helps to develop a collective conscience and helps keep society running effectively. For example in a hospital there is a chain of command. This is a structure that everyone understands what there role is, who to go to for support. This is an expected, predictable and normal behaviour in society. However some people choose to go against the social norms and values. This can lead to disorganisation, conflict and possibly distrust, and could also possibly damage society. For example if a medical professional went against social order, then the patients may lose their trust in the system and may feel undervalued and feel they’re not having their basic or medical needs met. In conclusion social order is good as without it society won’t be able to function effectively, which could possibly be damage society. Social order is also good as it helps to develop a collective conscience, which can help to keep society running effectively. Marxism and Exploitation/false consciousness Marxism is a theory created by Karl Marx. In his theory he realised that the working class were allowing themselves to be exploited, via a false consciousness and they don’t actually realise that this is happening. (Haralambos, Holborn, Chapman, and Moore 2013). This is because the working class believe that this is fair and don’t see it as an issue. The false consciousness comes from many sources such as family, and education. (Walker, Slides, 2018) The advantage of the working class allowing themselves to be exploited by having a false consciousness, is that they are producing products to make a profit for the ruling class. This is an advantage because with doing this then society won’t be able to access things such as free health care services, as they are generating profit for the government by paying taxes that go into services such as the NHS. However the disadvantage of exploitation and false consciousness is that, society does not actually realise that they are being exploited and think that this is normal and they don’t have an issue with it. This is a disadvantage because the rich keep getting richer whilst the poor keep getting poorer or staying poor, even though that they are doing all the work. The false consciousness also forces individuals into a role whether it is bourgeoisie or proletariat, due to the way that society is brought up and educated. In conclusion Marxist theory and exploitation/false consciousness has both its advantages and disadvantages. This is because without the working class being exploited they would not be able to produce a profit for example for the government, to help provide things to society such as free health care. However the false consciousness sort of forces people into a class society due to the way that individuals are brought up and educated. Conclusion Overall in conclusion this assignment shows that in Marxism the false consciousness plays a significant part with the exploitation of the working class. Even though in some ways this is a good thing as it helps to generate a profit which in some cases society can benefit from, such as making a profit for the government to enable them to provide services to the population. In functionalism social order is good as it looks at the functions of society and how society needs to behave, in order to function properly and effectively. In some ways this can be linked to Marxism as the way that society behaves can be down to the false consciousness. How members of society behaves is down to how individuals are brought up, and educated.