Introduction developing the economic level, and their position in

Introduction Europeans economy will not improve unless women get involved in the labor market. Additionally, utilizing their skills and talents is a crucial step in developing the economic level, and their position in society. Otherwise, underestimating women’s abilities considered to be a loss of human resource. Obviously, shrinking the gender wage gap gives greater profitability to the country in general.  Moreover, promoting social justice and equal opportunities will create a cohesive society. Therefore, following intervention methods is paramount to shrink the gender pay gap (European Commission,2015)The aim of this report is to discuss two different methods and come up with a highly recommended method which can be applied in Saudi Arabia . Different factors will be taken into consideration, for instance, literacy, employment rate, and the population ratio, and previous methods will be mentioned in this report in order to compare it with new methods. Furthermore, public acceptance and effectiveness are important scales to recommend the best method, these two main factors will vary in term of the method chosen, but religious background and traditions will help to choose the perfect method. Plus, each country has its own situation and factors need to be considered. Coming up with a method in order to shrink the pay gap in Saudi Arabia is risky.  2.BackgroundGender pay gap is everywhere, each crime and violence against women may negatively affect the method. Around 7% of the Saudi citizens are illiterates, but 29% of them have successfully graduated from the secondary school. Moreover, 17.7% of Saudis have got their degree from known universities in the country. Additionally, from a demographic view the number of males in Saudi Arabia is approximately 10 million, and roughly 9.8 million for females (The General Authority for Statistics,2016). Generally, Islam is the constitutional religion in this area, and jurisdictional organizations must follow the Islamic dogma in order to judge people. virtually, all Saudis are Muslims, and they considered to be a conservative society (USA TODAY,2013). Obviously, when a Saudi woman gets a baby she will not be able to do her job especially for those who are working in a field, and she might leave her job to look after her baby. This is the typical scenario for Saudi women, so this is the main reason behind the existence of the gender gap in Saudi Arabia.    Previously, Saudi government used to ignore effectiveness regarding women driving, so women are not allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia because it is not publicly accepted. Consequently, authorities found that the economy will dramatically improve if women drive. As oil price goes down, the government tries to shift the economy and change its nature from an oil-based economy to modern one which supports women participation in the society. Simply, lifting the ban is a paramount step to develop the economic level of the country. (Vogelstein, 2017)3. On-site childcareBuild a special zone inside the workplace where babies are allowed to play, learn, and freely act while their parents are working in the same building called On-site childcare. Companies should be fully responsible about these childcare places, and strict policies need to be written by the company itself  to create a clear set of rules that employees should stick with if they want to bring their children in. These rules will ensure that this decision will not interrupt or affect the general performance of the company. Besides, On-site childcare is an alternative solution for the maternity leave and paternity leave. Meanwhile, women will not get their full salary when they are out of work, and in some companies, a percentage will be applied to their salary. Virtually, this percentage will increase over time, so women will earn less. Thus, the pay gap will increase massively, but this intervention method will help companies to save money and time (Shore,2010). For example, in the UAE On-site childcare method become an official intervention in 2006 when the government noticed that females tend to resign after giving the birth. Productivity, and encourage women to work are priorities for the government in the UAE (,2017). Clearly, mothers will be able to concentrate on their jobs without worrying about their children,  and they will not be enforced to leave the job, as a result, the gap will be shrunk in a good way. 4.Telecommuting It means work somewhere else rather than the office, and this method can be either voluntary or compulsory it depends on the business running by the company. In fact most of the work nowadays can be done by using mobile phone or a laptop there is no need to go to the office. Statically, telecommuters can work more than 40 hours per week, and their performance report shows that their productivity is 20% more than their colleagues who work in the office, and a survey done by CIPHR in 2014 to list the benefits of working from home it appears that 74% claims that this method will make their life more balanced. Moreover, around 70% agreed that they will save a lot of money. Simply they will not pay for any transportation fees or gas. However, Federal government in the US have created a telework system which allows employees to access to classified data from a proved site (eg. home, telework center). Despite its importance, they decided to follow this intervention method to increase the productivity and increase the number of females(,2017). Generally, involving this method in the workplace will help to create new jobs that allow either women or men to work from home. By doing this no excuses and obstacles will face any woman to stay in her position after getting a baby.5. Requirements 5.1 Effectiveness Effectiveness defined as how efficient is the method, and it is a good way to find a statistical and logical result which will illustrate whether the method is working or not. Neither government nor common folk will know the progress of a method without evidence, so measuring effectiveness will help experts to conclude their studies by satisfying proofs that will be viewed by the government.Apparently,  Saudi Arabia considered being one of the most important countries in the middle east. Likewise, it has a good economic position among countries. The 19th is the ranking of the Saudi economy around the world ( Statistics times, 2017). Obviously, Saudi Arabia needs a quick change, and they need to secure their resources and try to find the alternative source. Increase women participation in the society will create new jobs and will help to shrink the gap, so an effective method is required to accomplish these goals.  5.2 Public acceptanceIt means how common folk will respond to massive changes caused by an intervention method. Apparently, public acceptance is an important factor, especially in conservative and strict societies. Citizens may accept and support the method, or refuse it and try to change it. Originally, it is an ancient right created by Greeks, they used to care about people’s response (Diabra, 2013). In fact, Saudi society is strongly stuck with it is traditions and customs where public acceptance is a major problem need to be solved. Changing the ideology of accepting is a big challenge when we talk about public acceptance in Saudi Arabia, so increasing the awareness by running several programs will help to tackle this situation. Likewise, by accepting a new method folk will easily do it and try to develop it. Thus, the good results will appear in a short period of time. 6. Comparison6.1 Effectiveness6.1.1 On-site childcare On-site daycare will be a long-term solution. Clearly, females will not be enforced to leave the job after getting a baby, so the pay gap will be shrunk in a short time. If the government will support this method by crate daycare centers inside the companies, the success rate of this method will increase. Moreover, investing in a human capital will help to close the gap indirectly. Early childhood education will help children to find jobs in the future.  The graph shows that the employment rate for female is close to the male’s employment rate, and the main reason for that difference is because females tend to leave the job to look after a family. Simply, by establishing daycare centers inside the workplace will increase the employment rate and will narrow the gap. 6.1.2 Telecommuting It is the fastest way to increase the productivity and reduce the gap in a convenient way. Apparently, in Saudi Arabia telecommuters are more productive by 50%.   Furthermore, 25% of the American employees have done their job remotely in 2015, and the director of the Flexjobs – a website to find remote jobs – claimed that flexible jobs can be applied in many different sectors. It is not directly related to a specific type of a job (Dill, 2017). Women will have a chance to stay in their job, and earn the same amount of money yearly. In Egypt, companies which  have more than 100 employees have to afford a daycare center, paying 5% for the first child and 4% for the second child is the cost of the daycare in the Egypt (AUC,2015). Possibly this is the reason that; wage gap in Egypt is about 25 %, which is less than what is it in Saudi Arabia (Khairy, 2015). 6.1.3 Comparison in terms of effectiveness Both methods will allow women to keep their jobs after giving a birth, and will reduce the gap in a short period of time. Plus, On-site childcare will not increase the productivity of the workers. However, it will reduce the gap and telecommuting will shrink it as well. In contrast, telecommuting will massively increase the productivity of the employees. Thus, women will annually earn the same as men, and this method can be applied in many different sectors.6.2 Public acceptance 6.2.1 On-site childcareThere are different conditions need to be considered to accept this method. One possible reason that families cannot afford a daycare is the cost of it. Moreover, early education is the most important factor. Recent studies have shown that it is a good way to combat crimes and avoid teen pregnancy is to teach children the right way to interact socially with strangers. Besides, building their knowledge and personality through high school is very important process, so this method will help children to get the foundational skills and close the gap simultaneously. Generally, creating affordable daycare centers inside the workplace is a good method to help employees to perform well in their jobs. In UAE, recent studies have shown that the higher cost of childcare, the less women at work. Meanwhile, the number of mother’s resignations has been decreased, and the productivity has increased dramatically ( Al-Shoomi, 2014) 6.2.2 Telecommuting Based on recent studies the ministry of labor in Saudi Arabia is trying to apply this method by establishing a new telework network. The purpose of this intervention method is to encourage saudi women to keep working, and create new different job opportunities (Arab news, 2014). Telecommuting is crucial to close the gap, and it will be a good solution to save money. Obviously, saving money will proportionally increase the annual income, so the gap will be shrunk. Involving young Saudi citizens especially women in a telework network will protect them from losing their job after getting a baby. In fact, it is either to leave the job or do it from home, so the ministry of labour decided to set criteria to systemize telecommuting in Saudi Arabia.This process will directly reduce the wage gap, and will allow women to do the job from home and getting a full salary (Mercans, 2015).  6.2.3 Comparison in terms of public acceptance  Both methods may increase the productivity, but sort of conditions need to be achieved to make it popular. Leaving a job is a major problem for a women who is getting a baby ,so the ministry of labour established a telecommuting system by setting different criteria. This will create new jobs for women in Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, building on-site childcare with affordable prices will decrease the resignations and will help to involve children in the early education program. Either telecommuting or creating daycare centers would acceptable ideas in the Saudi society since these methods will improve the economy in general, and it is already applied in UAE which has almost the same cultural background.7. Conclusion  There are different reasons cause the gender pay gap, and by applying telecommuting or on-site childcare method the gap would be reduced. Effectiveness and public acceptance are important factors need to be considered while introducing methods to close the  pay gap in Saudi Arabia Both methods will increase the productivity and will reduce the gap. In contrast, telecommuting will help females to earn the same as men. Leaving a job after getting a baby is a major problem need to be solved. By applying telecommuting or on-site childcare it is either bring your children to the workplace or stay home with them and finish the job remotely. 8. Recommendation Telecommuting is a good way to reduce the pay gap in Saudi Arabia , and by doing it the pay gap may be reduced since this method has already applied in such a countries which have the same circumstances as Saudi Arabia. Protecting a woman from losing her job after getting a baby is one of the main reasons for the gap exists, so working from home is such a method which can be applied in different types of jobs. Life balance, save money, and increase productivity and number of females are the consequences of this method. Moreover, this is a helpful way to maximize the working hours, so teleworker can work more than 40 hours a week which is higher than the average. Nowadays, the ministry of labour in Saudi Arabia is trying to Provoke telecommuting by systemizing a process for it with appropriate criteria to increase the number of females. Thus, the pay gap may be reduced in a short period of time.  9. References