Introduction and Hall 2010; Byrkjedal et al 2007; Ditsche

Introduction

 

            The
emergence of modified structures in fishes is an interesting element of the
evolutionary history of fishes (Budney and Hall 2010; Ditsche et al. 2014). Some of the most impressive
modified structures seen in fishes are the modification of fins to create
structures that act like suction cups and these can be seen in multiple
lineages of fishes within Actinopterygii (Beckert et al. 2015; Britz and Johnson 2012; Brunnschweiler and Sazima
2008; Budney and Hall 2010; Byrkjedal et
al 2007; Ditsche et al. 2014;
Green and Barber 1988; O’Toole 2002; Voskoboinikova and Kudryavsteva 2014;
Wainwright et al. 2013). While this
trait of a suctoral disc has been observed in multiple lineages, this is not a
case of homology throughout all of these lineages as the modifications of fins
into suctoral discs have arisen from different skeletal structures in different
groups of fishes (Beckert et al.

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2015; Britz and Johnson 2012; Brunnschweiler and Sazima 2008; Budney and Hall
2010; Ditsche et al. 2014; Green and
Barber 1988; O’Toole 2002; Wainwright et
al. 2013). Some groups of fishes, such as the remoras, have suctoral discs
that originate from the dorsal fin (Beckert et
al. 2015; Britz and Johnson 2012; Brunnschweiler and Sazima 2008; O’Toole
2002). Other groups of fishes, such as the clingfishes and lumpfishes, have suctoral
discs that have come from the paired fins (Budney and Hall 2010; Byrkjedal et al 2007; Ditsche et al. 2014; Green and Barber 1988; Voskoboinikova and Kudryavsteva
2014; Wainwright et al. 2013). These
differences in the origin of these similar structures points to an interesting
case in evolution (Ditsche et al.

2014).

Previous papers have compared suctoral discs that are modified pelvic
fins, but this paper takes it a step farther and looks at the modification of
multiple different types of fins into suctoral discs as this points to a large
case of convergent evolution in fishes (Budney and Hall 2010). This paper aims
to look at and review the function and structure of the suctoral disc in remoras,
clingfishes, and lumpfishes and to compare these structures and to see what
some possible reasons are for this trait to have arisen multiple times in the
history of the evolution of fishes (Budney and Hall 2010; Ditsche et al. 2014). This paper looks at some
of the different forms of suctoral discs in fishes and suggests that they arose
in multiple lineages due to different drivers and this can be seen in the way
they are formed and the functions they perform for the different fishes.     

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