International organisations:The international organisations are a very important stakeholder because they have high power to influence and high interest in carbon tax. They play an important role on the international scene with regards to climate change. We can see the example of the United Nations, with their Sustainable Development Goals, the climate change conferences and other initiatives led by international organisations to make sure that the world pays more attention to the topic of climate change.Institutions such as the European Commission and the World Bank support the carbon tax as a way to combat global warming. To do so, the European Commission has set a goal to achieve a low-carbon economy by 2050. The aim is to look at cost-efficient ways to make the European economy more climate-friendly and less energy-consuming. The World Bank’s president, Jim Yong Kim said: ‘We need to get rid of fossil fuel subsidies now’ and ‘You can have growth that will protect the planet and decouple carbon emission from growth. We can get it now, but it would be much easier if we put a price on carbon’. Fossil fuel industry For many years, the fossil fuel industry was strongly opposed to the carbon tax and showed little interest in the climate change topic. This is because fossil fuel sector is the biggest carbon emitter due to the nature of the core business. Fossil fuel subsidies are at staggering 5.3 trillion USD which is a 6.5% of the global GDP. Therefore, fossil fuel industry is a powerful stakeholder. The interest is gradually increasing. Indeed, some companies of this sector (ExxonMobil, Shell) begin to be in favour of the carbon tax. But is this interest genuinely due to the care for the environment? Or big fossil fuel players worry about the bad reputation they have in the eyes of the public and the impact on their companies? As the Shell Chief Executive, Ben van Beurden, said: ‘I do think trust has been eroded to the point that it is becoming a serious issue for our long-term future’.Context setters: High power and low interestGovernments (developing countries):Most of developing countries’ governments disregard the best practices when it comes to climate change and carbon tax. Several companies in those countries are polluting without being sanctioned or penalised. Regrettably, the authorities are giving indirect incentives to these firms to endorse their business while polluting the Planet. For instance, by not setting compulsory laws regarding sustainable development disclosures that each company must do. Nevertheless, some countries, for example Morocco, started to take better initiatives. Thanks to the support of their government, the country became one of the climate change champions of the world, as it is ranked in the third place just after Sweden and Lithuania in the last report of ‘Climate Change Performance Index 2018’ published by the Climate Action Network. Morocco is now working on the world’s largest concentrated solar plant which will lower carbon emissions by an estimated 760,000 tons per year.Subjects: Low power and high interestClean energy industry The clean energy industry has a high interest because its core business and philosophy is to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy. Clean energy industry has low power because it is not up to the industry to make the transition possible. The power lies elsewhere, and clean energy industry can lobby the decision makers for the decision to be taken. In other words, they can only spread the word and continue to strengthen their clean solutions to influence the transition. They do not have the same voice, power and earnings as the fossil fuel industry, which is their main competitor.Clean energy industry aims to demonstrate that transition to sustainable energy is better for the environment. Clean energy industry offers alternative sources of energy to fossil fuels, such as solar power, geothermal, wind energy, biomass, ocean energy (tidal power) or hydropower energy. The widespread opinion in the clean energy sector is that the faster the world stops relying on fossil fuels and moves towards a zero-emission future, the better.High profile environmentalists Over the years, a number of prominent public figures and celebrities became involved in the climate change topic. Unfortunately, their speeches and documentaries, albeit very interesting and inspirational, are not sufficient to make concrete changes in real life. In order to have a wider impact throughout the world, new practices are becoming more known to fill the lack of influence. Some of the manoeuvres include hiring ecologists in politics. As a matter of fact, Nicolas Hulo, well known as environmentalist and presenter of Ushuaia Nature documentary that highlights the importance of preserving ecosystems of the planet is currently a Minister of Ecological and Solidary Transition in Emmanuel Macron’s government.Other well-known public figures, for example Leonardo DiCaprio, strive to reach public authorities and international organisations to save the Planet. The actor founded an organisation to fight global warming (The Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation) and produced a documentary named ‘Before The Flood’, where he stressed not only the myriad impacts of the climate catastrophe the humanity is facing, but also the influence of the politicians on the issue.