Insecure McKeganey, 2004). Kelly-Ann was moved into foster care

Insecure attachment is arguably the main factor which can be
seen to have a negative impact on Kelly-Ann and be an influencer in her
offending behaviour. Kelly-Ann lived with her parents up until the age of 3
when they divorced. Attachment theory
research suggests there is a critical period for developing an attachment between
the age of 0-5 years (Bowlby 1969). If no attachment has developed during this
period the child could suffer from irreversible developmental consequences,
such as reduced intelligence and increased aggression. The divorce had a
negative impact on her mother which was shown through her drug use and her
spiral of short term relationships. One of the relationships her mother had was
with Steve who Kelly-Ann accused of physically abusing her and she claimed
sexually too. Parental drug use can
impact a child’s healthy development because which drugs have on individuals.
Problematic drug use can impact parenting and become the top priority for
users, therefore impacting the parenting which a child will receive and can
impede the provision of a nurturing environment. (Barnard & McKeganey, 2004). Kelly-Ann was moved into
foster care where she had multiple carers and was unable to form any
long-lasting attachments. Kelly Ann was able to return to the family home as
her mother broke things off with Steve, but this never lasted long as her
mother and Steve made up.

One of the more recent factors which contributed to the
offence by Kelly-Ann was the rejected visit from her mother and her inability
to properly regulate emotions. Kelly-Ann had scheduled a visit with her mother
which was cancelled last minute as her mother was unable to make the meeting.
After discovering that the visit with her mother was cancelled, Kelly-Ann displayed
aggressive, violent and self-harming behaviour. She requested that Mrs Johnston
came to speak to her however this was not possible. This could be seen by
Kelly-Ann as a double rejection from two individuals who she seems to have an
attachment to therefore leading to poor emotion regulation and no coping
techniques to vent with which ended up in a violent assault. Research has shown
that parental rejection on a child can make them more hostile and aggressive
towards others when they are older preventing people making strong, trusting
relationships with other adults (Khaleque & Rohner 2012).

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Attachment Issues is the biggest perpetuating factor which
is highlighted throughout the case study. Kelly-Ann has an insecure attachment
style. Attachment style can be associated with violence, and evidence suggests
that insecure attachment is a risk factor for criminality (Ward, Hudson, &
Marshall, 1996). Attachment is Kelly-Ann’s biggest perpetuating factor which
will remain to be the biggest problem until Kelly-Ann is able to form longer
lasting and secure attachments.

Kelly-Ann showed deep distress and empathy after the attack
had happened. She did apologise to Mrs Johnson for what had happened, and she
believed that this could ruin their relationship which seems to be an important
relationship for Kelly-Ann. It can be argued that she understands what happened
was wrong and therefore shows that she can empathize. It was clear that
Kelly-Ann was shocked at herself and was distressed at what she did, and this
alone could be a protective factor. The ability to show emotion is a huge
protective factor in being able to build up relationships in the future.
Kelly-Ann’s ability to form attachments is one of the biggest protective
factors which she possesses as attachment is the main causative factor for her
violence.

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