Infectious the use of cost-effective health interventions to provide

Infectious
Diseases (IDs), poverty and prevention

 

1.         Background – Infectious Diseases affect
large population of the developing countries (such as China; India; Pakistan;
Bangladesh; Middle east), as well as the people living under lower
socioeconomic conditions of the developed world. (talk about how older people
are effected)

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2.         Challenges in the developing world –
the process of innovating health technology, financial and access barriers.

3.         Need for preventive therapy –
Vaccination therapy is critical for the elimination of the IDs.

4.         Infectious
Diseases require novel approaches to vaccine development.

5.         Covalent Vaccination and Catalytic
Antibodies- emerging as a promising new technology for the Vaccine therapy of
IDs – How it works and its benefits. ( add science)

6.         Conclusions

7.         References

 

Keywords

 

infectious diseases            developing world                 Vaccine

 

Background

 

Infectious
Diseases in the developing world

 

Developing
countries bear a disproportionate burden of Infectious Diseases (IDs)—including
AIDS/HIV, tuberculosis, diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, syphilis etc, and has
claimed high rates of deaths, notably among children (occurring under 5 years
of age) -. Million of people in these low -income countries die each year
from communicable diseases -. The IDs account for 29 percent of all deaths in
the low-countries and thus remain a significant contributor to the burden of
disease in the developing world. Thus this high mortality rates and/or high
morbidity, incurs high financial costs through loss of productivity as well as
high medical expenses.

 

The IDs and
health conditions that account for a large part of the disease burden in
low-income countries are far less common in high-income countries. Such as HIV
has spread worldwide in a short time, but is disproportionately concentrated in
low-income countries.- In 2004, almost 2.9 million deaths attributed to AIDS
occurred in the low-income countries, compared with an estimated 22,000 in the
high-income countries.- This glaring difference is due in part to greater
wealth, better general living conditions, and the use of cost-effective health
interventions to provide prevention and treatment. However, the burden of the
communicable diseases also falls disproportionately in the lower socioeconomic
parts of the developed countries -. As poverty exposes individuals to the
adverse political, economic and cultural conditions that cause IDs and
increases the risks of experiencing premature deaths. Common risk factors in
the lower socioeconomic conditions include poor schooling, inadequate housing,
hazardous workplaces, poor diet and sanitation.

Many of the disease conditions that
account for the largest differences in health status between the developing
countries and the high-income countries are diseases for which cost-effective
strategies are available as well as accessible. Therefore research on the
relationship between poverty and IDs risk factors within developing countries
is critical for the development of evidence-based, health policy interventions
and an altered design of vaccine development that could help substantially in
preventing the many needless deaths. Therefore, the high mortality rate in the
developing world due to IDs poses the high need of vaccine development. As the
rapid increase in the spread of the IDs in the developing world, necessitates
an urgent need of novel approaches to the vaccine development -.

           

Development
and accessibility to the preventive treatment therapy against IDs within the
developing countries as well as for the vulnerable population of the developed
world is crucial. For the success of global attempts such as the 2015
Sustainable Development Goals and the WHO Global Action Plan on IDs -, it is
extremely critical to reduce the burden of the infectious diseases in the
developing world, in order to reduce the mortality rate as well as improve
health of the population by improving the sustainable access to the vaccination
therapy.

 

Challenges

 

We see
despite the global attempts and the world wide vaccination therapy under WHO
implementation plan in the developing countries, the desired level of health
improvement has not yet been achieved and show lack of eradication of the
infectious conditions -.There seem to be multiple reasons for such failures –
the population that could benefit from the available treatment interventions do
not have access to them.- One of the greatest barriers to the delivery of the
vaccine therapy is its availability at an affordable price by public health
sector -. As technologies come at a considerable cost -, the vaccination
therapy remain out of reach to the low income population, as the Out-of-Pocket
payments is the primary source for covering the cost of medicines in these low
income countries -. Other causes that act as a barrier in the eradication of
these IDs in the poorer countries is the lack of national health spending -.

Political instability in these developing countries has also been a
long-standing issue -, along with lack of national research funding and the
quality of health research training, -. Thus these issues and the
incapability of classic vaccine technology itself (for example traditional
vaccine approaches used for combating other infections have proved ineffective
for HIV in clinical trials), exacerbates the public health delivery issues in
these countries. Thus for disease-endemic countries, the technology challenge
may not only be one of novel invention, but also local sustenance and
distribution of an existing technology due to these multifactorial barriers.

 

Thus in the
past decade, even though the government as well many organizations have
employed preventive and treatment strategies. Nevertheless, the epidemic has
continued to spread. For example, TB remains the second largest cause of death
in the world, even though drugs to cure the disease have been available for 50
years.-  Public health measures have
been unsuccessful in preventing the spread of this disease. In the most
populous countries of Asia—Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and
Pakistan—account for half of the world’s cases of TB. –

 

Thus it is
critical to examine the association between poverty and infectious diseases in
the developing world, which is one of the most important aspects of the IDs
epidemic from a health policy standpoint. Additionally, investigating the need
for innovative vaccination therapy for diseases with high mortality or high
morbidity rates and how they can benefitu1 .

 

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