In the first book of The Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau the main focus is that man is born free, yet at the same time his obligations drag him down in chains. Rousseau once stated, “As long as people is compelled to obey, and obeys, it does well; as soon as it can shake off the yoke, and it shakes it off; it does still better; for, regaining its Liberty by the same right as took it away, either it is justified in resuming it, or there was no justification for those who took it away.” The oldest society and natural society is the family. There’s the father which is the leader and his children representing the populace. Once the children reach maturity, the rest of the family can return to their own independence. According to Rousseau, force cannot be the foundation for legitimate political authority. People believed slaves obeyed their masters s a mere necessity not by choice. Thus, the right of the strongest cannot create the sense of a duty that is necessary to establishing a true right. Since strength is a relative term, the effect of this right changes with the cause. As soon as one deems themselves the strongest, all other claims are proven null and void for the terms slave and right contradict one another. Rousseau states the issue at hand as: “The problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself at all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before.” The issue may only be solved when applying The Social Contract into terms. Sovereignty is both inalienable and indivisible. The general will is always right and it promotes general utility, but there are always two different takes of the people’s will. First, the will may be declared an act of Sovereignty and constitutes law. Second, it’s only a particular will or an act of magistracy, a decree. Almost always a difference can be found between the will of all and the general will; the latter consisting only of the common interest, the former takes private interest into account and considers only a sum of particular wills. But when one of the groups attempts to overpower the other it can cancel the other out, thus leaving only private opinion expressed and not the general will. Each citizen can render the state he ought to render as the Sovereign demands it, but the Sovereign cannot impose upon its populace any restraints that are useless to the community on their part. If a certain objective does not meet the standards of the doing for the common good it had lost all purpose since the Sovereign is only allowed to deal with issues that may affect the entire population. Thus partaking in a particular persons’ private interest not the general will of the people. Rousseau then implies that, “He who wishes to preserve his life at others’ expense should also, when it is necessary, be ready to give it up for their sake…It is expedient for the State that you should die.” Hence, an individual can risk his own life to protect the state. Because the purpose of the social contract is the conservation of its members, everyone must be ready, in times of war and crisis, should bear arms to give to his life to save others. The same logic may be applied towards the death penalty, but only in certain situations because if a high frequency of corporal punishment people may insinuate that it is a weak government. The Social Contract gives off essence to the body politic existence. Laws must be considered by the state as a whole and are needed to join rights to duties and refer justice to its object. According to Rousseau, executive authority does not belong to the people because it deals with certain issues, whereas the people should focus on general concerns. Thus, the people must have an agent to carry out the general will and to communicate between the state (the passive body) and the sovereign (the active body). For the government to carry out the general will, it must have its own life and will and be able to distinguish itself from the sovereign. Magistrates must share a common interest known as the “corporate will” which helps preserve the government. Government officials are employees of the Sovereign and are in charge of exercising the authority that is entrusted to them. There are different forms of government that are essential to each state and may assert certain conditions upon them. A government in which the sovereign gives power to all people which is a “democracy.” The sovereign can also give power to a small number of individuals which is called an “aristocracy.” Finally, the sovereign can place a single individual in charge of government which is called a “monarchy.” The population of a state is an important factor when deciding its form of government. A small population tends to do better since there’s less persons it deals more with the common good rather than people’s own private interests unlike a larger population. As long as several men in assembly refer to themselves as one body they’re single will is focused on common preservation and general well-being. The state will join in peace, unity, and equality. When new laws need to be implemented, everyone will know which laws are appropriate and will ratify them out of good sense. And when social bonds start to relax and the state grows weak, the particular interests are felt and smaller societies exercise influence over the common interest changes and finds opponents. However, this situation does not mean that the general will has been destroyed. Although the common interest still exists, it has been made subordinate to private will. When the state is in a period of decline, the citizen uses his vote to benefit particular individuals and parties rather than the nation as a whole. Thus, Rousseau asserts that the behavior of citizens in the assembly will reveal the health of the body politic. Unanimity shows that the people share common values and a uniform desire to pursue the common good. There is only one law that requires the unanimous consent of all citizens, and that is the social contract. Since man is born free, no one can force him to be under the state’s jurisdiction without his consent. Therefore, opponents of the social contract can choose not to be included in it. Rousseau creates special body called a tribunate which preserves the laws of the legislative power. It serves to protect the Sovereign against the government. In certain cases dictatorship may be the best means to control a state if the laws prove to be inflexible or censorship may be forced upon if necessary to protect morality by preventing the corruption of public opinion.