In specific biological response occurs and induces a signal

In the study of
electrochemical biosensor, a type of biological recognition system will help in
transfer information from the biochemical sample which is an analyte, into an output
signal with a type of sensitivity. The aim of the recognition process is to run
the sensor in a shape of high selectivity state to measure the analyte. Biosensors
are selective corresponding to an analyte. Design of certain biosensors are
based on a “class-specific” type as usually they are using specific biological
compound (Thevenot, et al., 2001).

typical electrochemical biosensor working principles are applied as follows:

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a) bioreceptors specifically bind to the
specific analyte,

b) a specific biological response occurs
and induces a signal or reading,

c) the signal will be picked by a
transducer and later, transformed to an electronic signal,

d) the electronic signal will be enlarged
by a detector circuit using the setting reference provided. The signal will send
to a software for processing,

e) the provided computer software will transform the
signal into to a physical parameter or quantitative reading to help in elaborating
the process that is being studied.

Biosensors are highly selective because of the
presence of the immobilized, biological recognition system that would
specifically bind and interact with the target species in the sample on the
working electrode due to the specific binding affinity. (Grieshaber,
et al., 2008). In
the early stage, Leland C. Clark had presented the application with principle
of the first enzyme electrode, by immobilizing the glucose oxidase which acts
as the biological recognition receptor on the surface of the electrode. This is
featured at the New York Academy of Sciences Symposium in 1962. This device
system was used to detect the amount of glucose in the blood samples taken from
diabetics’ patients (Clark Jr. & Lyons, 1962) (Setford &
Newman, 2005).
They are also frequently being targeted as they are easily fabricated, portable
devices and their simplicity structure which contributes to the widely usage of
this type of biosensor (Scampicchio, et al., 2010) (Evtugyn,