In modern times, widespread use of the internet has been in constant exponential growth. Theinternet has aided the spread of news, advertisement, and social communications around the world.However, this advantage could be used in a detrimental way. Terrorists, now a days, are finding all thepossible ways to advertise their morals to gain the interest of more people, thus gaining more power toterrorize the world. Unfortunately, they have chosen to use the internet to spread their extremistideologies and find new recruitments. This has already started to happen, especially now since thespread of technology and the access of the internet to people is being provided easily. Terrorist groupsare using the internet for propaganda purposes, and unfortunately they have succeeded in doing so.Terrorist use of technology is very precarious, almost all the people of the world use the internetas a daily biases. People from all ages are using the internet, including children and young adults in theirearly to late twenties. Therefore, the internet is an easy way for terrorists to utilize it to incite, inspire anddirect new recruits by providing information to brain wash people into joining their groups. Terrorists aretargeting emotional and psychological vulnerabilities to send subliminal messages to these people.Teenagers are the most common age groups that are usually targeted by terrorists, since it isscientifically proven that at the age of adolescence the brain goes through dramatic changes that leadsto abnormal activity. In this case, vulnerable teenagers are easily indoctrinated by terrorists throughsubliminal messages.Throughout the past 17 years, the number of terrorist attacks have rapidly increased byapproximately 85%. The reason behind this, is that as the years pass by the connection between theinternet and and the people increases. Henceforth, terrorist took advantage of this and started using theinternet for propaganda purposes. That being the case, all countries must cooperate in ensuring theprevention of terrorist groups from using the internet for propaganda purposes, consequently the numberof terrorist attacks would decrease. World organizations associated by the UN have implemented severalsolutions and measures to solve this issue.Preventing terrorist groups form using the internet for propaganda purposes should be one of themost important goals of the UN. However, the united nations have attempted several measures toResearch Report | Page 1 of 10Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 24th – 25th of February 2017prevent terrorist forums tom using the internet for propaganda purposes, as this issue jeopardizes thepeace and security of the world. The UNODC (united nations office of drugs and crime) has createdcounter terrorism task force to prevent this issue. Several security council resolutions have been bothimplemented and adapted in recent years that requires states to fully cooperate with the measuresimplemented to prevent terrorist groups tom using the internet for propaganda purposes; Particularly,resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1566 (2004). The united nations Peace keeping forces are also working ondecreasing the threats and terror caused by terrorist groupsDefinition of Key TermspropagandaThe use of words by someone to make a false claim to persuade, incite, or direct usingpersuasive language. For this issue, propaganda is used by terrorists to incite and direct people to joincertain terrorist groups. Propaganda is also used by terrorists to brain wash people into joining theirgroup.UNODCAn acronym for United Nations Office of Drugs and crimes. Is a sub-organization established bythe United Nations specifically to solve the issues regarding drugs and crimes, including the preventionof terrorism in the world in all forms. Established in 1997.PeaceThe state of having equality, freedom, and no conflicts and terror in the world. The point in solvingall the issues including the acquisition by terrorists of the internet for propaganda purposes is to providepeace and security to the world.UN peacekeeping forcesA role held bey the department of peacekeeping in the United Nations, which is a unique anddynamic way to provide peace to the world. Helping countries that are facing both internal and externalconflicts to ensure that peace is available in all countries and is long lasting.Subliminal messagesMessages that are recognized by the unconscious part of a humans brain. Such messages areoften dangerous since people do not realize that they are receiving and obeying such messages that areharmful and dangerous.IndoctrinatePage 2 of 10 | Research ReportDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 24th – 25th of February 2017The act of brainwashing someone; To persuade people into doing something by getting to theirweaknesses.RecruitmentThe action of hiring new people to armed forces such as terrorist groups.IncitementThe act of making people act in anRadicalizationThe process of indoctrination by extremists that often accompanies the transformation of recruits toindividuals having different objectives, yet same extremist ideologies.Fundamental threatsAre the threats that form a basic core for other harmful threats. In this case, they are the threats thatare the causes of other consequential threats that are considered such as acts of terrorism.Cyber terrorismThe use of the internet to propose threats, attacks and propaganda for terrorizing reasons.Terrorists are skilled in way to hack the internet to spread their ideas of terrorism, brake firewalls of themost secured organizations to use the information for corruption and post propaganda on their trustedcites.Background InformationThe ability to prevent and combat terrorists from using the internet for propaganda purposes liesupon the understanding of the strategies terrorists use in order to succeed in what they are doing viapropaganda, such as the age gouts they are targeting. Understanding the way terrorists are being ableto publish propaganda on the internet is also a way of being able to prevent terrorists form using theinternet for propaganda purposes. More importantly, knowing the history of this issue will be in help ofunderstanding the process of how terrorists are able to use the internet for propaganda purposes.Objectives of terrorist when using the internet for propaganda purposesSince the late 1980’s, the internet has proven to be the most used source of communicationbetween the people around the world reaching an overgrowing audience from all parts of the world.However, technology could be exploited for other purposes such as terrorism. Terrorists use the internetto pursue an objective or a goal, and some of these objectives are: (recruitment, radicalization,incitement to terrorism). There are several ways in which terrorist could achieve these goals.Research Report | Page 3 of 10Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 24th – 25th of February 2017propaganda being one of the forms of the spread of terrorism could be done through the internet andeasily spread to the entire world in a matter of few seconds. In order for terrorists to pursue theirobjectives they set plans and strategies to be able to succeed in achieving their goals. Understandingthese strategies is a good way to help the UN and other organizations to be able to understand thesestrategies in order to prevent terrorists form using the internet for propaganda purposes.RecruitmentOne of the main objectives of the propaganda published by terrorists in the internet is to find andtarget recruitment. Terrorists aim to expand their group number, having more people would meanhaving more power and control. The internet could be used to develop relationships with peoplethrough propaganda to send subliminal messages to make them join their group. It is easier toshare venues with people through the internet so that terrorists are able to gain the support andpower from more people. Propaganda is often modified to appeal to vulnerable and isolatedgroups in a society, teenagers being the marginalized and vulnerable people in the society arecommonly targeted, that is why a huge sector of the people in a terrorist group are teenagers.Cartoons, video games, and music videos are forms of different subliminal messages.IncitementThe use of incitement to gain power is very common in the strategies of terrorist groups. Althoughmany member states consider the use of propaganda to incite acts of terrorism unlawful, it ishard to be able to place the propaganda under jurisdiction in the criminal court of law. However, ifoffered a direct link between alleged propaganda and an actual plot or execution of an act ofterrorism, then lawful consequences could be applied.RadicalizationAnother form in which terrorists use to inflict harm and terror to the world is by radicalization. Theinternet is used for propaganda purposes by terrorist to give them the ability to send extremistideologies across the world to people in several areas around the world. By radicalizing peopleand making them terrorist in their individual way, no direct link could trace back to the mainterrorist groups, in fact it could take away the attention from the main terrorist group so that theycould be able to pursue other objectives and work on a more strategic plan to inflict harm, terror,and danger to the world.Ways terrorist use propaganda to purse their goalsTerrorists were able to find several ways to pursue their terrorist goals, and have also found waysto target and obligate people to help them with pursuing their goals. Some of these ways include thepromotion of violence, the promotion of extremist rhetoric encouraging acts, and fundamental threats.Promotion of violencePage 4 of 10 | Research ReportDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 24th – 25th of February 2017Violence as used by terrorists stimulates acts of terrorism and encourages other users to engagein an act of terrorism and in role-play, by taking a part of visual terrorist acts. These virtualmessages are conveyed in many ways such as presentations, magazines, video games, andcartoon films. Studies have shown that children that are exposed to virtual violence and a youngage often turn out to be violent and aggressive, having the morals that could be easily used tocause terrorism or participate in terrorist acts.Promotion of Extremist rhetoric encouraging violent actsMany social media platforms have came to a conclusion that some users have been using theseplatforms to send rhetoric extremist ideologies including violent acts. In 2016 twitter being one ofthe most used apps by people these days were able to detect such acts and have shut downapproximately 125,000 accounts that seemed to be rhetorically encouraging violent acts.The fundamental threats posed by terrorists propagandaThe fundamental threats posed by terrorist propaganda relates to the manner in which it is usedand the purpose with which it is spread. Such threats cover several aspects, of which: cover arange of objectives and audience; through messages conveying pride, accomplishment, anddedication to an extremist goal, psychologically manipulate an individuals belief in certaincollective social values.Major Countries and Organizations InvolvedUNODCThe united nations office of drugs and crime have implemented several solutions and resolutionsin order to stop and prevent this issue once and for all. In collaboration with the united nations counter-terrorism task force, the UNODC was able to establish policies and legislative framework which directsthe implementation of laws, coming up with a new legislation that complies with the contemporarysituations regarding cyberterrorism, and offering the support against cyber terrorism in order to preventterrorists from using the internet for propaganda purposes. The same organization presented a list thatsome high powered authorities needed to prevent this issue, by explicitly handing a report regarding theways to prevent this issue to countries that are interested.International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)The international civil aviation organization had vigorously implemented ideas to prevent thethreat of propaganda proposed by terrorist. The security council urged most state members to adapt tothese measures. In collaboration with its member states, the ICAO was able to identify critical aviationsystems, and review the effectiveness of mitigation established for these systems.Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS)Research Report | Page 5 of 10Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 24th – 25th of February 2017In 2014, there were 45,000 twitter accounts that were being used by ISIS supporters,posting propaganda to send subliminal messages to people and brainwashing them to join theirgroup. While in the fall of 2014, ISIS disseminated a video of the beheading of the Americanjournalist James Foley, this has caused many ISIS supporters to to take and aggressiveapproach towards ISIS, and many people were influenced by this act. ISIS is also using theinternet propaganda to rise funds that help in proceeding in terrorist attacks.Al-QaedaAl-Qaeda operatives are known to have taken hacking skills.being able to hack the most usedsocial media platforms allows them to get in touch with several people from all around the world. AbuMusab al-Zarqawi’s al-Qaeda cell in Iraq has been linked to its use of web, garnering attention byposting footage of violent acts relating to their strength and power to terrorize people to the point wherethey are obligated to join their terrorist group. In march 2008 a participant on the pro al-Qaeda onlineforum ek-Is.org posted six training sessions for aspiring terrorists, which resulted into several attacks byradicalized people that were affected by the video.IraqIn Iraq, propaganda videos are viewed by a numbers number of people with in the society, not onlythose who sympathize with terrorists and insurgents. Videos are propagandized in several ways whichinclude them being posted online. Some websites that are constructed by terrorists offered video gamesthat target young, vulnerable and ignorant children, preparing them to be wholly worries killing bravesoldiers.North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)The North Atlantic treaty organization approved it’s first cyber defense policy in 2008, whichincludes the prevention of the terrorists use of the internet for propaganda purposes. The NATOComputer Incident Response Capability (NCIRC) protects the organizations own network by providingdefense support to the various NATO sites. Governments are working on enhancing their capability todefend and prevents attacks on the NATO sites to prevent any form of propaganda by terrorists to enterthe system.Timeline of EventsDate Description of eventThe late 1990’s Terrorists began to harness the new internet technologies for propagandapurposes1999The internet became the principal arena for the disseminating jihadistpropagandaPage 6 of 10 | Research ReportDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 24th – 25th of February 2017Relevant UN Treaties and Events• The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, 8/09/2006 (A/RES/60/288)• Capability of the United Nations system to assist Member States in implementing the UnitedNations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, Monday, April 3, 2017 (A/71/858)• The UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy Review, 29 June 2012, (A/RES/66/282)• Measures to eliminate international terrorism, 9 December 2011, (A/RES/66/105)• Technical assistance for implementing the international conventions and protocolsrelated to counter-terrorism, 19 December 2011, (A/RES/66/178)Previous Attempts to solve the IssueTwitter and many social media platforms have been banning accounts that are running byterrorist groups Though they did not achieve a terrorism-free internet, they have decreased the amountSeptember 14th, 2005UNSC resolution S/RES/1624 (2005) called upon to provide basis forcriminalizing acts of terrorist propaganda committed throughout the internet.2005/2006 Establishment of the The Counter-Terrorism ImplementationTask Force (CTITF)January 30, 2006 Federal Law No. 2 of 2006 on the Prevention of Information TechnologyCrimes in the United Arab EmiratsJuly 27, 2006 The implementation of federal law NO. 149-FZ on informational technology,and information protectionjuly 28, 2006 ASEAN and canada cooperate to combate international terrorsimJanuary, 2011The united states organized a conference in Riyadh Saudi Arabia to discussabout polices regarding the threats proposed by terrorist in the internt throughpropaganda purposes.12&16 February, 2016 Geneva Conference on Preventing Violent Extremism – The Way ForwardSeptember 22, 2016 Resolution 2309 (2016) adopted by the security council for counteringterrorismJune 17-19, 2015 octopus conference 2015: cooperation against cyberterrorismResearch Report | Page 7 of 10Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 24th – 25th of February 2017of propaganda proposed by terrorists in the internet. However, with every disabling instruction of accountterrorists find ways to continue initiating other accounts and finding other social media platforms.Nevertheless, recently Twitter has launched a transparency report, and for the first time it includes theoption of reporting accounts promoting terrorism.Furthermore, on the 11th of may 2016, the security council requested the united nations panel topropose a global framework on countering terrorist propaganda. Reframing; that terrorism in all its formsand manifestations make up one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. Lateron, on the 30th of april 2017 a comprehensive framework had been done in accordance to this matter.Resolution 2255 (2015) adopted by the security council calls for the establishment of measures tocombat the threats to the international peace and security caused by terrorist attacks. Propagandaproposed by terrorists in the internet is considered one of the threats to the peace and security of theworld.Lastly, the UNODC (United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime) urged all member states and partnersto commit to working together and provide all the resources to combat the issues proposed by terroristacts. Insuring the world safety and security. As was stated in the Remarks made by the UNODCExecutive Director:” Cybercrime has emerged as a truly borderless threat, one that stands alone, andalso aids and abets so many other forms of crime. UNODC research and analysis is identifying trendsand patterns, and keeping the international community up-to-date on rapidly shifting markets for NPSand other drugs, and on emerging crimes such as wildlife crime”.Possible SolutionsAlthough the United nations and several other organizations have tried to fight this issue, they didnot successfully prevent terrorists from using the internet for propaganda purposes. However, in order toprevent this issue a possible solution would be organizing an international convention holding all CEO’sof famous social media platforms that aims to make sure all social media platforms are trying to targetalmost all terrorist accounts and shut them down.Furthermore, there can be a legislative improvement by insuring the implementation of all laws thatare involved with the right of privacy and speech, keeping in mind that not all private speeches areacceptable. There can also be an implementation of a fire wall to all important websites such as theUNODC, the UN and other websites so that terrorist do not hack and post propaganda on behalf thesetrusted organizations.Moreover, installing a software to detect keywords used by terrorists so that detecting any possiblepost by terrorists for propaganda purposes. This software could also be able to locate the origin of themessage, post, or website by addressing the IP address. Also keeping in mind to allow trustedgovernments to have a hold of these software to insure the security of theses softwares.