In chosen as the temporary capital, it would eventually

In 1790, multiple issues were still undecided in Congress. This indecision was caused by the conflicting ideologies of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. One main issue was choosing a permanent location for the United States’ capital. James Madison’s “block” of Hamilton’s plan for debt assumption caused another stalemate in Congress. Thomas Jefferson proposed a private dinner meeting to solve these ongoing conflicts. During this meeting, a compromise was decided on. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison would get southern representatives to vote for Hamilton’s plan to solve the northern states’ debts and the U.S. capital would be located on the border of the Potomac River, in the south. Due to the conflict involving the permanent U.S. capital location and a need to solve the states’ debts, Jefferson, Madison, and Hamilton compromised and passed the Residence and Funding Acts.Alexander Hamilton brought forth his plan to have the federal government fund all of the states’ debts on January 14, 1790. Southerners strongly opposed Hamilton’s plan. They worried that Hamilton’s plan gave the federal government too much power. In all, the states owed twenty-five million dollars, so others were concerned that twenty-five million was too much money for a young country to take on, along with the federal government’s own debts. If the federal government paid the states’ debts the total amount would be seventy-one and a half million dollars. States such as Maryland, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and Virginia had already paid their debts, and thought it unfair that the other states would not have to follow through with their payments. One of the people who disliked this plan the most was James Madison. Madison basically “blocked” the bill from being passed in Congress. Madison’s refusal to consider Hamilton’s plan caused lots of tension between A major issue that was vacillated in Congress was the location of the permanent United States capital.  Northern representatives wanted the capital to be located in a Northern state. Two particular places that were nominated were New York and Philadelphia. Southern representatives vouched for the capital to be located in a Southern location, specifically Virginia.  Although the main concern was choosing the permanent capital, there was debate over where the temporary capital would be, as well.  The two most likely candidates were New York and Philadelphia. Hamilton feared that if Philadelphia was chosen as the temporary capital, it would eventually become the permanent seat of government. The Northeastern states did not want Philadelphia to gain so much power; the southern representatives did not think that Philadelphia was centrally located in the thirteen states to equalize the power. Hamilton was prepared to present a deal. If New York was the temporary capital, he would agree to Trenton, New  Jersey as the permanent location for the U.S. government. Hamilton was despised by many, so New York became associated with Hamilton, ergo most southern delegates wouldn’t even consider New York.  It was feared that the region the capital was located would gain too much power. One of the main concerns at this time was having a strong central government. Neither side wanted to give the other more power in the government. Of course, this caused disagreements, arguments, anger, etcetera. Consequently, another problem was left unsolved. With two major decisions unsolved in Congress, the union was headed for failure. The day of the dinner meeting, Thomas Jefferson wrote to James Monroe that if nothing was decided upon the country would undoubtedly split. In an account from Jefferson, he claims to have ran into Hamilton outside the President’s office. Hamilton confessed that he was planning on resigning. Hamilton was in so much distress because his debt plan was shut down in Congress.  In their conversation, Hamilton and Jefferson agreed that the future of the United States was more important than their conflicting views. In order for the union to succeed, they would need to reach a compromise so the government could have a prosperous beginning. Prior to the well known dinner meeting, three meeting had been held. These meetings were even more secretive than the dinner meeting that produced “the Compromise of 1790”. Gathered at each meeting was a different assemblage of representatives. In the first meeting, held on June 6,  Jefferson and Madison met with Hamilton’s assistant. The second meeting, which occurred around the same time as the first, Alexander Hamilton met with Pennsylvanian delegates.  The the third and final meeting preceding the dinner meeting between Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton, assembled representatives from Virginia and Pennsylvania on June 15.  These three meetings barely produced any form of a solution to the current conflict. The only agreeance that was reached was at the third gathering, where it was decided that Philadelphia would become the temporary capital.  The aforementioned meetings lead to the large dinner gathering that would yield the Compromise of 1790. Thomas Jefferson invited James Madison and Alexander Hamilton to dine with him, in the hopes of reaching a compromise between the men. “I proposed to him however to dine with me the next day, and I would inviteanother friend or two…”Thomas Jefferson, 1818The meeting would be held at Jefferson’s New York estate, fifty-seven Maiden Lane, New York City. Hamilton, Jefferson, and Madison dined on June 20, 1790 and discussed the future of the United States. It was finally agreed upon that multiple southern delegates should change their votes so that Hamilton’s financial plan could be passed.  Hamilton understood that the southern representatives would not do this willingly, so it was agreed that Hamilton and the northern representatives should offer something in return. The location of the U.S. capital was immediately brought forward. Hamilton grudgingly concurred to persuade a few northern delegates to vote for a place near the Potomac River for the nation’s permanent capital. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison would urge some southerners to vote for Hamilton’s financial plan to be passed, and the young country would be able to grow into a world power.   Although there are multiple accounts of the meeting, many people didn’t even know about the dinner meeting. Most information was kept behind closed doors, because the men involved, mainly Thomas Jefferson, feared an unofficial bargain could ruin his reputation. Other politicians, such as James Monroe, also warned Jefferson, Madison, and Hamilton of the possible consequences of secret “dinner deal”. Jefferson realized this blunder two years post-meeting, having originally ignored James Monroe’s premonition. However, Jefferson’s remorse makes his account seemingly more credible. “Why fabricate a tale in which one comes off a self-confessed dunce?”  Due to the secretivity of the compromise, accounts from Thomas Jefferson and others may be slightly biased, or glorified to preserve notoriety.Plans to put into place the compromises reached at the dinner meeting started almost immediately after the the gathering in late June. The Residence Act of 1790 was passed on July 16. The act stated that the spot near the Potomac River, now named Washington D.C.,  would be the permanent capital of the United States. However, while the location was being prepared to be the seat of the Federal government, it was decided that Philadelphia would be the temporary capital for ten years. The bill went through the Senate on the first of July, 1790. The bill was passed by a vote of fourteen to twelve. After going through the Senate, the bill was moved to the House of Representatives on July 9. The bill was passed by a narrow margin of thirty-two to twenty-nine. Finally, on July 16, 1790, George Washington signed the act, and Washington D.C. became the permanent seat of government for the United States.Following through with the compromise decided upon, it was time to vote for Hamilton’s assumption plan, only shortly after the Potomac was decided as the location for the capital. At the dinner meeting, it was agreed that Madison and Jefferson needed to convince at least three southerners to switch their votes. To secure the vote, they persuaded four members to change their votes. The Assumption Bill was passed by the House of Representatives by a vote of thirty-four to twenty-eight.  James Madison still voted against the plan, but did not lead in strong opposition as he had previously. George Washington signed the bill into law as the Funding Act of 1790 on August 4, 1790. The Act stated that the United States’ federal government would assume the debts of all of the states. Once this act was passed, both ends of the compromise had been fulfilled.

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