I purchase situations is lightning, customer service, and crowding.

 I choose Apple product and JD sports purchase situation from the section one for the compare and contrast situation of the factors that existed when the time I purchased from the store. There are some of the similarity and also different purchase situation that I realised when I purchase both of the product.  The similarity of both purchase situations is lightning, customer service, and crowding. 

Store Lighting 
For the in-store retailer should pay more concern about the design of their in-store environment as part of their marketing strategy in order to develop a customer-oriented store environment which has an ultimate contribution toward the sale. A proper lighting design in the store will illustrate object or appealing of the product more attractive for the customer. According to the Hultén et al. (2009, p. 99), appropriate lighting has the ability to create an appropriate mood, which, in itself, attracts and captures the consumer’s interest. In JD sports store, they have installed Tamlite Lighting’s Starlite LED strip in over 20 stores throughout Europe and the UK, using the eye-catching feature lightning as an accent for product displays and decorative features.While for the Apple team believes that fully-illuminated LED ceiling is interspersed with narrow linear lighting troughs which include spotlights that uniform lighting offers the best way to showcase its technology products.

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Customer Service
Today, retailers are competing on the customer experience. The staffs represent the front line of the organisation where it is the place that the customer visits the store interacting with them and also exchange take place too. As a result, high satisfaction from the customer shows the staff is not only having a professional knowledge about merchandise the service is guaranteed too. Apple Store team called Genius Bar will focus on the customer from the moment I enter the store providing relevant information about the products that I interested in. By doing so it will add value to the product and the brand at the end of the day, customer purchasing behaviour is mostly influenced by the behaviour of the staff. Besides, the emotion of the staff will also affect my buying behaviour. Kotri (2011) stated that emotions act also as a cause and motivator for customer reasoning and behaviour. For instance, the delivery of the service with a smile of the JD sports staffs has given me a positive intention to purchase the product from them. 

As in the collage have shown the two shops were very crowded when I purchase the product in JD Sports during Black Friday Sale and another Apple Store was on the weekend. Crowding in a store sometime have a negative impact toward consumer buying behavior. According to Dion (2004) stated crowding may result in avoidance (leaving the store earlier), aggressiveness (feel rush and push by other), opportunism (using the extra time to find bargains) or self-blame (for coming into the store at the wrong hour). Conversely, Gaumer & Leif (2005) argue because of social facilitation theory, consumers enthusiasm grew when the store crowed which will intensify positive emotions regarding the purchase experiences.For example, the crowded shop will raise my curiosity followed what people are buying where hears the conversations of the group of people discussing the hot selling item that they bought.

 JD Sport 

 Purchase situations

Apple Store

Shelf design 

Store layout

Aisle design

Pop song 

Store background music 

Chill and classic song 

Store Layout 

According to Lewison (1994) the store layout influences both shopping atmosphere and shopping behaviour of consumers visiting the store. A well designed store layout can contribute to a positive shopping atmosphere, which results in the kind of shopping behaviour a retailer wants to achieve. The layout influences such factors as the time customer stays at the store, how many products the consumer comes into visual contact with and what flow the consumer travel in the store. There are two basic types of store layout which are grid and free form. The layout of Apple Store is using the free-form store layout. The store design of this layout is creating a relaxing browsing environment and impulse purchase of the customer. Furthermore, the pattern in the store allow unstructured flow of customer traffic. While, JD Sports store using different pattern of store layout unlike Apple Store. Their store design is grid layout. In grid layout the counter and fixtures are at the right angle to each other and look like a maze with merchandise counter act as barriers to traffic flow (Peter,J.P&Olson.J.C,2008) It is also designed to increase the number of product came across with the customer visual contact in resulting increase their possibility of purchase.

Store background music 

Kotler (2001) defines “atmospherics” as the designing of a buying environment wherein specific buying emotions are formed by implementing the senses (sound, touch, sight and scent) in order to increase the possibility of purchasing. Music is a tactic to create different experience of customer and influence customer behaviour.According to Grewal et. al (2003) states that the effects of using background music to influence consumer behaviour in different setting and situations have been widely recognised in contexts such as retail stores. I still remember when I purchase trainer from JD sports a pop song was played as background music. It makes me feel very joyful to spend a little more time linger in the store.Apple stores worldwide use specially chosen music played over their in-store sound system to create a pleasant atmosphere and a chilled-out vibe. It has a store playlist that is consistent across all the store and features music from mix of genres and eras with a particular emphasis on classic song. 

3) a)Psychological variable 

Consumer psychology is the study of why people buy things.There are some psychological variable that influencing our buying decision. Marketers are always analysis those factors to have a better understanding how we as a consumer think and behave. I will explain how those variable such as motivation, personality, learning, perception, belief and attitude could influence my purchase decision on the product of JD Sports and Apple as well.


Consumer motivation is an internal state that drives people to identify and buy products or services that fulfils conscious and unconscious needs or desires. Nowadays, there is a significant show that the increase number of women participating in the sport event. Currently, I have the interest having a more healthy and perfect body figure therefore I need a comfortable sportswear when during my workout. My buying behaviour of Adidas trainer from the JD Sports can be explained by Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory. Maslow’s theory identified five basic level of human needs including psychological needs, safety and security needs, social need, ego need and self actualisation. It must be fulfil from the very low level and only can reach to the top level. In the hierarchy of need theory, psychology need are the first and the most basic level of human needs required to sustain biological life include food, water , air , clothing and shelter. For example the trainer is the need for me satisfied my biological need. The next level is safety and security need. As I mention above that I want to have a healthy body it is also consider as safety concerns. The third level of Maslow’s  hierarchy ,social needs includes such needs as love, affection, belonging and acceptance. (Schiffman , 2004) All my friends are joining gym doing workout to gain a perfect body figure and I also join them to wish that we all are belonging together so that won’t feel left out . The forth level is the egoistic needs. For example, perfect body figure is an individual’s need of self acceptance and also self esteem. When they achieved this level they will proceed to the last stage level of self actualisation. It is the self fulfilment refer to individual fulfil their desire and becoming what they want to be. For instance, my final goal is to have a perfect body figure and once I achieved my goal I will be fully satisfied my desire. 

Self concept

Moreover, my buying behaviour toward a particular product might influence by self concept. Self concept is a complex structure it denotes as the totality of an individual thoughts and feelings having reference to his/herself as an object. There are some components in self concept one of it is the real and ideal selves. “Real self ” is the way in which a person sees himself now. “Ideal self ” is the way in which a person would like to see himself. Sometime, self esteem shows a positively of a person’s self concept and a study found that individuals who are made to feel powerful spend more money on themselves because they think it is worth for them. For example, I bought trainer from JD Sports, a leading sports fashion retailer is represent my ideal self. I want people to look at me more stylish and sporty. On top of that, the other reason as I mention above is the JD Sports use a famous singer Rita Ora to advertised sportswear so when I dress myself same like those celebrity it makes me more confident. 


Perception is a process go giving meaning to sensory stimuli. People act and react on the basic of their perception is the way they sense and interpret the whole world around them.( Arnold,Price, Zinkhan, 2002) Apple use sensation and perception to motivate customer behaviour. For instance, in term of visual, the big screen and extreme thin body could catch their customer’s eyes. For its such fashion appearance especially the colour attracts many young and character people.Furthermore, we as a human always been affected by product colour either physically or psychologically. How humans are affected by colours has obviously a psychological nature which indirectly influences norms, reactions and individual behaviour. Apple launched their new phone with the colour of gold has attracted me so much. In Asian perspective, gold colour is representative the shade of achievement, accomplishment and triumph.Connected with wealth and success ,extravagance and quality, esteem and advancement, worth and polish, the brain research of the shading gold infers opulence, material riches and indulgence. (Color Psychology,2018)

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour caused by experience. We need not to learn experiences directly from the daily life but we still can learn through observation. In order to keep the loyal customer and expand the new customer ,Apple pays attention and their best effort by providing a good customer service no matter online or offline customer to create a good experience for them. They believe if a customer have good experience when they purchase some of the products, there is a high percentage of likelihood that they may repeat to buy it.Me as the example why I buy Apple product because from my previous experience I was happy about what I bought before with a great experience, the knowledge that I gained from the staff was so useful.I was so impressed by the Apple employees of the passionate about the products that I feel like I am talking to a polite tech enthusiast in the Apple stores and not Apple employees. 

Belief and attitude 

An attitude in marketing terms is defined as a general evaluation of a product or service formed over time (Solomon, 2008). Apple marketer was so professional and care about what customer feeling, they promote their product said that they produced create value for a product is to satisfied what a customer want not only just gaining for the profit. Apple product for some customer is not only just a brand but also a belief. Whenever Apple issue their new product, there always have thousand of people so called Apple die hard fan will queue up in front of the retail store for it all around the world. They believe Apple product is superior and non of the other product can be substitute it. 

B) Demographic variable
The demographic environment is the major interest for the marketer because it involves people and company use this factors such as gender, age, level income,  social class, culture and family to identify their target market for specific product or service. The consumer behaviour is affected as these factor change. 

Social class

Apple company is targeted people who are at the middle and upper class. When people in the middle and upper class have shown a different income level and their buying decision might be also not the same. A person who in the middle class will make the decisions based on utility. However, people who earned more than middle class they would want more luxury product with style, design and special features while purchasing the produce or service. A buyer with a higher disposable income will spend more on the luxury or lifestyle item. Moreover, education also affect a person social class. The more educated person is, the higher their social level because of the high paid of the salary.