Human genome project is a comprehensive mega project ,
international research effort dedicated to map the entire human genome by
determining the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA of each 22+X and Y
chromosomes and to study the function of human genes. It has been also called As
INTERNATIONAL GENOME SEQUENCING
HGP is considered to be the most ambitious project ever
undertaken due to the following points:
1. it deals with 3*10^9 base pairs, to determine their exact
sequences in different genes and in different
chromosomes and to determine the relationship of different genesto
2.It deals with storage of huge data.imagine if 3*10^9
base pairs and their sequences to be stored in books with more than 1000
letters per page and 1000 pages per book just from one single human cell.
3. The cost of sequencing this was estimated to be 9
billion in the year 1990s .( $3 per base pair).
Human genome project was initially a 13 years project. UK
was the major contributor of this project. The project was funded by NATIONAL
INSTITUTE OF HEALTH AND US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. The project officially began
on October 1,1990. Advances in technology computational devices for data
processing , data sorting and data retrieval, the first working draft of entire
human genome was announced in june ,2000and first detailed analysis appeared in
February 2001 on NATURE AND SCIENCE
journel.the project completed in april 2003.
GOALS OF HUMAN
1: To sequence entire genome that
includes above 3 billion base pairs.
2: to store
this information in databases , easily accessible to scientists across the
identify 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA.
a physical map of human genome by cloning DNA into yeast artificial chromosomes(YACs)
and bacterial artificial chromosomes(BACs).
5: to develop
technological advances in genetic methodologies like gene cloning , sequence
costigs and sequencing genomes.
transfer related technologies to other sectors (eg:industries)