Human for the unemployed. Pollution could also be fought

Human overpopulation occurs
when the human population exceeds in size within its carrying capacity, this
being the Earth. It can happen due to numerous reasons, such as the increase in
life expectancy or in birth rate. Overpopulation is damaging to the
environment, it causes strains on economies and it impacts humans alongside
with other species. Sustainability can be defined in three steps; economic, social
and environmental sustainability. However overall, sustainability is the
ability to continue a defined behaviour indefinitely. In this
essay I will discuss possible solutions to overcoming the issues of
overpopulation, which is taking place in all countries of the world. I will
examine the problem from different perspectives related to PPLE.


Thomas Robert Malthus was an
English scholar best known for his theory of population. The Malthusian theory
of population states that the human population increases geometrically doubling
itself every 25 years, whereas food supply growth increases arithmetically. This
creates an imbalance between the two, and consequently leads to overpopulation.
The conclusion therefore was that in the future humans will run out of
resources to survive on. Malthus proposed preventive and positive checks in
order to control the population growth. The preventive checks were mainly focused
towards men and included suggestions such as celibacy, moral restraint and the
postponement of marriage in order to control the birth rate. The positive checks
consisted of natural disasters such as famines and floods but also wars, which
could potentially bridge the gap between population and food growth. Although
the Malthusian theory has proved to be applicable for example in India, it is surrounded
by a lot of criticism. Most of the criticism stems from the fact that Malthus
was not able to foresee the incredible advances in technology, farming and
medication. The development of contraceptives and the medical sciences has
helped tremendously with the large population growth. It is said that Malthus
wrongly analysed human psychology. Not everyone intends on having a large family,
in fact many people choose not to have many children in order to ensure a
better standard of living.

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Politically, global leaders should
join forces in order to form global restrictions and agreements. Countries
should also focus on the environmental damages that human overpopulation
causes. By targeting them, the effects will not be as severe. The Paris Climate
Agreements is a brilliant example of when countries came together in attempts
to protect the earth from climate change. Human overpopulation does not simply
affect us as humans but other species as well. It is one of the reasons why
many animals are endangered, for instance the rhinoceros. In some developing
countries, unemployment is so high that the only mean of income for people is
poaching these animals for their horns which they can then sell. This could
potentially be reduced if new legislations were put into place against the
poaching of endangered animals. Also, a potential solution from the social
perspective of sustainability to stop human encroachment could be to provide a
basic income for the unemployed. Pollution could also be fought with policies
that create restrictions against the cutting down of natural resources for the
building of new residences or acreages. By cutting down natural resources we
are harming other species and destroying their habitats. Ethics should also be
questioned here. Are we as a human species entitled to do so for our own
benefit? What gives us the right to harm the environment for our own gain?


Notwithstanding countries’
efforts, sometimes these global restrictions and agreements may not work due to
countries’ domestic politics. Countries’ views may clash depending on which
party is in charge in which country. This is especially important when
discussing the superpowers of the world, such as the United States, Russia and
China. The fact that Republicans are now in power in the United States affected
the Paris Climate Agreement as USA opted out and has now also legalized
offshore drilling in the Arctic, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The size of the
country should be taken into account. The United States is one of the top five
most polluting countries in the world thereby causing more damage than if a
smaller country would have opted out of the agreement.


From the law perspective,
countries could come together in order to implement a new law which would help
reduce population growth or at least decrease the rate. China can be used as an
example. As a result of a high birth rate which eventually led to a famine, China
implemented the one-child policy in 1980. This is a problem which is not all
that distant from other countries as well. The government officials of China
claim that the policy reduced the population by 400 million people, whereas
demographers give an estimate of 100 million. Nevertheless, this proves that
the policy was effective. However, due to the strict nature of the law many women
were forced into abortions or were involuntarily sterilized. This raises the
question of ethics and morality, and is where psychology comes in. Is it
ethical to deprive someone of their rights to reproduce or force someone to
have an abortion? Should the laws have other, less strict, sanctions such as
fines? In the long-run, the policy will cause trouble for the children born
during the time of the one-child policy as there will be more pensioners than
taxpayers. Perhaps a more reasonable solution could be to improve education and
bring awareness to family planning. By increasing education and decreasing
birth rates, population growth would slow down. This would help with the case
of deforestation and pollution as slowing down population growth reduces the
pressure to create more agricultural and pasture lands for food production. Also,
education and fertility rates have proven to have a positive correlation. Japan’s
primary school enrolment percentage is 100 and the number of children per woman
is 1.3. The empowerment of women through education, even if it is through the primary
level, leads to women having less children and/or waiting longer to have
children. Another way to help reduce high birth rates could be to give more support
to families with 1-3 children instead of, for example, 4-5. This could be done
by giving families with fewer children, tax benefits, such as reductions on
their income taxes.


From the economic point of
view, human overpopulation may not necessarily be only negative. In the
short-run, there will be more consumers which leads to an increase in GDP. When
the market is open for more than one company, all companies are pressured into
lowering prices and improving their services in order to administer their
oppositions who are challenging their practices. Consumers have more
variety/choice while making purchases, hence manufacturers will have more
incentive to innovate and promote their products. On the other hand, one of the
main problems human overpopulation causes is unemployment. Unemployment happens
when someone of working age is not able to get a job, even though they are
actively looking, but would like to be in full-time employment. If there are
fewer jobs available, the economy will suffer. Unemployment will counteract the
above-mentioned increase in consumption as households will have lower disposable
incomes, hence reducing levels of demand. The government may also end up in
debt due to unemployment benefits they will have to pay. Unemployment due to
overpopulation is difficult to fix as it is challenging to create jobs.
However, some market-based supply-side policies could be implemented, such as
reducing corporate tax rates. Companies would gain more money, thereby being
able to hire more workers. Fiscal policy could also be used in the case of


There are many ways to
counter human overpopulation, such as through better education, economic
policies, and global restrictions and agreements. However, all of these
solutions have their pros and cons, which is why they need to be thought out
carefully. For example, global leaders should come together to discuss whether
the economic benefits of their solutions overpower the environmental damages
they may cause. Taking into account psychology, politics, law and economics
would ensure a well-rounded decision-making process to support the long-term
ecological, economic and social balance.