Honey has been used in conventional medicine for centuries. It is most widely used as sweetener. The ancient Egyptians, Chinese, Assyrians, Greeks and Romans employed honey for wounds and ailment of the gut. It is composed of approximate 181 components and chiefly is a solution supersaturated in sugars, Fructose: 38.2%, Glucose: 31.3%, Maltose: 7.1%, Sucrose: 1.3%, Water: 17.2%, moisture content is about 17.7%, total acidity 0.08%, and ashes constitute 0.18%. Additionally, there is an immense range of minor components including flavonoids, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid, organic acids, amino acids and enzymes such as glucose oxidase, catalase, and proteins (Nagai et al., 2006). The actual composition depending on pollen source, climate and environmental conditions.
The Noble Quran is God’s greatest gift to human beings and guides them to perpetual prosperity and includes entire health program for human beings. In Quran it is undoubtedly confirmed that every ailment has its cure. Allah said in the Holy Quran, which means ” your Lord inspired to the bee to use the mountains, trees and spreading fruits and go through all the routes that God has facilitated out of their bellies a syrup (honey) in varying colors, in which there is healing for people. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who give thought” (Surah al Nahl, verse 68 and 69). It has been quoted in hadis also “Honey is the medication for every illness and Quran is the medication for all illness of mind, therefore I suggested to you both remedies, the Quran and the Honey” (Sunaan Tirmidhi: 1196), (Inayatullah et al., 2013; Peyravi and Moezzi 2013).
Honey is used for the treatment of various diseases and for maintenance of health such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, wound healing, anti-ulcer, anti-oxidants and anti-cough. Honey produces anti-inflammatory action by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipo-oxygenase action and preventive the action of polygalacturonase as well as decreasing the expression of the inducible isoform of COX-2. Anti-ulcerous properties can be observed by honey flavonoids that augment the mucosal content of prostaglandins, which increases the protective result on the gastric mucosa, consequently prevent ulceration. It has been also reported flavonoids increase the mucosal content of prostglandins and have an important inhibitory effect on acid secretions, preventing the formation of peptic ulcers ((Viuda?Martos et al. 2008).
Antibacterial capability of honey is due to the action of the hydrogen peroxide in honey that is produced by glucose oxidase in the presence of light and heat and another antibacterial action is independent of light and heat effect due to nonperoxide activity that inhibits microbial growth (Roth et al., 1986). During fruit and vegetable processing honey acts as natural alternative to sulphites for controlling enzymatic browning. Antioxidant property of honey is chiefly due to the existence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, proposed mechanisms for anti-oxidant are sequestration of free radical, hydrogen donation, chelation of metallic ion, or they act as substrate for radicals (Al-Mamary et al. 2002).