Historical Since the industrial revolution spreading all over the

Historical Advances The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ is stated that the rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery (English Oxford Living Dictionaries, 2018). Since the industrial revolution occurring in Britain it spread over the continent very gradually. It was first popularized by the English economic historian Arnold Toynbee (1852-1883), to describe Britain’s economic development from 1760 to 1840. Since Toynbee’s time the term has been more broadly applied (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2018). Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of manufactured goods and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment and living conditions for the poor and working classes.The first industrialist of the United States was Samuel Slater known as the ‘Father of the American Industrial Revolution’ who opened the first industrial mill in the in 1790 with a design that borrowed heavily from a British model (The Independent Hall Association, 2017). Since the industrial revolution spreading all over the world many inventions were made. Many of these inventions made work easier and cheaper. For example, in 1700 it took four days to travel from London to Manchester, by 1870, it took four hours (Biography Online, 2017), now because of the industrial revolution result it only takes 2h 10m by train (Trainline, 2018). Industrial revolution brought many benefits to improve in education and health care, first government regulations (the condition of industrial revolution encouraged governments to pass laws on child labour and introduce first basic safety legislation) and for many good ways. (Biography Online, 2017). As these inventions created new manufacturing and industry, many people also moved away from farms into cities. It was a time of very rapid change in the world (SoftSchool.com, 2018). In 1920, The Japanese manufacturer Ohno Taiichi of Toyota is the next major change in car manufacturing after Ford. When he returned to Japan after visiting car manufacturers in the USA in the 1960s and developed a new method of manufacturing, which became known as lean production. The term Lean means “manufacturing without waste.” Waste (“Muda” in Japanese) has many forms such as time, idle equipment, material, inventory etc. Most companies waste 70%-90% of their available resources. Even the Lean Manufacturers probably waste 30% of their available resources (Strategos, 2018). This is linked by McKinsey & Company (Mohr et al, 2018) that manufacturers could reduce the amount of energy they use in production by 20 to 30 percent. They could also design their products to reduce material use by 30 percent while increasing their potential for recycling and reuse. However, one commentator (Maurya, 2016, p.13) suggested that when applied to innovation, the problem isn’t one of the finding waste, but rather prioritizing the biggest areas of waste.Lean is a systematic method for the elimination of waste within Manufacturing System. As the waste is in everywhere the company must introduce the lean method to get better result for the profit. Waste such as delays, activities, or materials that consume resources but do not contribute value to the end result. Toyota identified the existence of seven common forms of waste, which it constantly seeks to eliminate. Taiichi Ohno, architect of the famed Toyota Production System, believed that a firm’s production operations should progress smoothly without disruption – a vision demanding the virtual elimination of waste (Ruffa, 2008).

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