HAUSSMANNIZATION CITY. BUT JUST WHEN YOU THINK THIS DEVELOPMENT

HAUSSMANNIZATION (NOUN):THE CREATIVE DESTRUCTION OF SOMETHING FOR THE BETTERMENT
OF SOCIETY1, THIS TERM WAS FIRST USED TO DESCRIBE THE CONSTRUCTIONAL CHANGES
PARIS UNDERWENT BY GEORGES-EUGE?NE HAUSSMANN; LATER ON IT WAS USED ON THE SAME
CHANGES THAT OCCURRED IN EVERY CITY HE TOUCHED.

BEFORE HAUSSMANNIZATION, PARIS WAS TREMENDOUSLY CRAMPED WITH TRAFFIC, INFESTED
WITH DISEASES, AND INSANITARY. THE CITY VULNERABLE TO ATTACKS AND IT WAS HARDER
TO PROTECT THE CITIZENS OR GUIDE THE TROOPS IN AN OVERCROWDED SPACE.
AFTER HAUSSMANNIZATION, THE NEW SEWAGE SYSTEMS PROVIDED THE CITIZENS WITH CLEAN
DRINKING WATER AND LESS DISEASES, THEY HAD ACCESS TO CLEAN AIR, HIGH TOURISM,
GREENER PARKS, AND A BEAUTIFUL CITY. BUT JUST WHEN YOU THINK THIS DEVELOPMENT
CAUSED NUMEROUS ACHIEVEMENTS, IT ALSO TOOK AWAY COUNTLESS GREAT THINGS. HAUSS-
MANN’S “STRAIGHT LINES” IN THE CITY’S MAP INTERSECTED WITH A LOT OF DWELLINGS AND
HISTORICAL BUILDINGS. THIS MEANT THAT A TREMENDOUS NUMBER OF CITIZENS WERE FORCED
TO LEAVE THEIR HOUSEHOLDS AND RELOCATED TOWARDS THE CITY OUTSKIRTS. MOST OF THESE
CITIZENS WERE FROM THE LOWER-CLASS AND LIVED IN THE SLUMS. THEY WERE OKAY WITH
MOVING OUT OF THEIR HOMES HOPING FOR A BETTER CHANGE BECAUSE THEY BELIEVED THEY
WOULD COME BACK TO SOMETHING BETTER.

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IN THIS ESSAY I WILL BE TALKING ABOUT HAUSSMANN’S WORK IN PARIS AND CAIRO IN RE-
GARDS TO 2 TOPICS “BEAUTY” AND “POWER”.

GEORGES-EUGE?NE HAUSSMANN
GEORGES HAUSSMANN (27 MARCH 1809 – 11 JANUARY 1891), THE SON OF A BOURGEOIS FAM-
ILY FROM ALSACE . HAUSSMANN ATTENDED A UNIVERSITY OF PARIS WHERE HE WAS STUDYING
LAW AND MUSIC. AFTER GRADUATION HE WAS ABLE TO QUICKLY PROGRESS THROUGH THE CIVIL
SERVICE WHICH AND WAS RESERVED FOR THE NOBILITY BEFORE THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.
HAUSSMANN’S PROSPERITY CAME WHEN HE WAS NOTICED BY THE EMPEROR LOUIS NAPOLEON III
IN 1853. AT THIS TIME NAPOLEON III WAS SEARCHING FOR FOR SOMEONE TO COMMENCE HIS
GRAND VISION IN REBUILDING PARIS AS A MODERN CAPITAL THAT WAS WORTHY OF FRANCE.
NAPOLEON FOUND A KEEN ALLY IN HAUSSMANN AND ASSIGNED HIM AS THE PREFECT OF SEINE
(OF WHICH PARIS IS A PART) IN 1853. THE TWO MADE AN EFFECTUAL TEAM AND WORKED IN
CLOSE ALLIANCE ON THE MODERNIZATION PROJECT WHERE THEY FOLLOWED THE CLASSICAL
STYLE, INVENTING A METROPOLIS OF NEOCLASSICAL WONDER, HOPING THAT PARIS COULD BE
MADE THE MOST BEAUTIFUL CITY IN THE WORLD IN TEN YEARS. HAUSSMANN WAS UNWAVER-
INGLY LOYAL TO NAPOLEON, AND NAPOLEON PROTECTED HAUSSMANN FROM HIS OPPONENTS.
WHILE HAUSSMANN PROVED TO BE EXTREMELY KEEN AND A PROFICIENT ADMINISTRATOR, IT
IS SIGNIFICANT TO NOTE THAT HE NEVER REALLY HAD ANY EXPERIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE
OR URBAN PLANNING, WHICH RESULTED IN SOME OF HIS PLANS NOT WORKING OUT QUITE AS
ENVISIONED. IN ADDITION TO THE FACT THAT HE WAS USUALLY REFERRED TO AS BARON
HAUSSMANN, HE WAS NEVER OFFICIALLY A BARON – IT WAS MORE OF AN ASSUMED TITLE.
HE EMBARKED ON A FUNDAMENTAL PROJECT OF URBAN DESIGN TO RECREATE PARIS AS A MOD-
ERN CITY, THIS PROJECT INCLUDED CREATING A NEW SEWER SYSTEM, CONSTRUCTING WIDE
BOULEVARDS, CONSTRUCTION OF MONUMENTS, UPDATED AND UNIFORM FACADE FOR THE CITY’S
BUILDINGS, RESTRUCTURE SYMMETRICAL ROAD SYSTEM AND CONSTRUCTING OF NEW PARKS.

PARIS

HAUSSMANN AND THE EMPEROR LEFT SO MANY LONG-LASTING MARKS ON PARIS THAT IT IS
DIFFICULT TO KNOW HOW TO SUMMARIZE THEIR WORK. THE FIRST THING TO KNOW IS WHY A
PROJECT OF THE SCALE OF RE-PLANNING A WHOLE CITY WAS ATTEMPTED.
FIRSTLY, THE MOST IMPORTANT, MOTIVE WAS THAT THE SECOND EMPIRE WAS AWARE OF THE
THREAT WHICH THE CITY OF PARIS ESTABLISHED TO THE REGIME IN POWER. NAPOLEON,
UNLIKE HIS PREDECESSORS, WAS PREPARED TO TAKE RADICAL STEPS TO PREVENT THE DAY
WHEN THE PARISIANS DECIDE TO ‘ DESCEND INTO THE STREETS.’ SO, MILITARY ADVISED
EXTENSIVE CHANGES IN THE GEOGRAPHY OF PARIS.

SECONDLY, THERE WERE IMPORTANT ECONOMIC REASONS FOR MODERNIZING PARIS, NOT ONLY
BY EXPANDING THE COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES OFFERED BY THE CITY, BUT
ALSO BY COMPLETELY RE-ORGANIZING THE ARRANGEMENT OF HIGHWAYS WITHIN, AND LEADING
INTO AND OUT OF, THE CITY.

FINALLY, NAPOLEON III WAS DEFINITELY MOVED BY THE DESIRE TO MAKE PARIS INTO A CAP-
ITAL CITY WORTHY OF FRANCE, A CAPITAL PROVIDING THE CLEANLINESS, BEAUTY AND LIGHT
NECESSARY TO HUMAN BEINGS IN CITIES. IF WE CONSIDER THESE THREE MOTIVES, WE SHALL
COMPREHEND HOW HAUSSMANN AND THE EMPEROR APPROACHED THE PROCESS OF PLANNING.

BEAUTY

HAUSSMANN WORKED ON HIS MASSIVE PROJECTS FOR SEVENTEEN YEARS
IN THE CITY CENTRE, HE VISUALIZED FOUR BOULEVARDS : A NORTH-SOUTH AXIS LINKING
THE GARE DE PARIS-EST IN THE NORTH AND THE PARIS OBSERVATORY IN THE SOUTH , AN
EAST-WEST AXIS FROM THEPLACE DE LA CONCORDE ALONG THE RUE DE RIVOLI UNTIL THE
RUE SAINT-ANTOINE . HE DESIGNED NEW AVENUES, CONTAINING THE BOULEVARD SAINT-GER-
MAIN , AVENUE FOCH (INITIALLY AVENUE DE L’IMPE?RATRICE), THE AVENUE DE L’OPERA
,AVENUE VOLTAIRE, AVENUE HAUSSMANN AND THE BOULEVARD DE SEBASTOPOL.

ALONG THESE AVENUES ABOUT ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND TREES WERE PLANTED, IN ADDITION
TO THE NEW SQUARES AND PARKS.

BESIDES THE WIDE BOULEVARDS ONE IMPORTANT THING WAS HIS ARCHITECTURE, WHICH
REACHED THE DESIGN OF SOME OF HIS CHURCHES, HAS BECOME THE UNIQUE AND LONG-LAST-
ING MEMORIAL TO THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SECOND EMPIRE, AND ITS INFLUENCE
REACHED MOST OF THE EUROPEAN CITIES.

HE BENEFITED FROM THE WIDE AND SPEEDY PERSPECTIVE, LOCATING PUBLIC BUILDINGS CON-
FIDENTLY IN THE ANGLES OF SQUARES, OR POSITIONING THEM TO CENTRALIZE VISION ALONG
THE EXTENT OF BROAD AVENUES AND CROSSING LOCATIONS.
HE CARED ABOUT THE FRESH ATMOSPHERE OF THE CITY SO HE CREATED NEW PARKS , THE BOIS
DE BOULOGNE IN THE WEST , PARC MONTSOURIS IN THE SOUTH , THE PARC DES BUTTES-CHAU-
MOUNT IN THE NORTH AND THE BOIS DE VINCENNES IN THE EAST.

INORDER TO CONNECT PARIS WITH THE REST OF FRANCE HE ADDED 2 NEW TRAIN STATIONS
AS GATEWAYS FOR THE CITY,THE GARE DU NORD AND THE GARE D’AUSTERLITZ . AND HE RE-
CONSTRUCTED THE GARE DE PARIS-EST AND GARE DE LYON.
TO SHOW OFF HIS BEAUTIFUL CITY , NAPOLEON III ORGANIZED AN “EXPOSITION UNIVER-
SELLE” IN 1867 AND INVITED THE RULERS OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES TO COME AND SEE
PARIS.

POWER

THE AUTHOURITIES FACED 3 DIFFICULTIES WHEN PLANNING THE NEW URBAN FABRIC OF PAR-
IS: VERY NARROW CROOKED STREETS OF THE CITY WITHIN THE SLUMS IN THE CITY CENTER
WHERE THESE NARROW STREETS WERE TO BE EASILY BLOCKED BY THE BARRICADES THAT
WOULDN’T BE CLEARED BY THE ARMY OR THE POLICE FORCES AND FINALLY THE NETWORK OF
THE ROADS IN PARIS WAS SO COMPLICATED WITH MANY OPEN UNKNOWN STREETS THAT MADE IT
ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE FOR THE TROOPS DO YOU HAVE ACCESS EITHER IN THE TIME OF THE IN
THE TIME TO PROTECT THE CITY OR THE CITIZENS OR IN CASE OF REVOLUTIONS.

SO HAUSSMANN SOLVE THESE PROBLEMS MY FIRST DESTROYING THE SLUMS AND START DE-
SIGNING FOR THE NEW CITY. THE NEW DESIGN INCLUDED VERY WIDE BOULEVARDS AND CLEAR
GIRDED STREET PLAN WHICH CONNECTS ALMOST EVERY PART IN PAIRS.
SECOND SOLUTION WAS TO CONSTRUCT THE BARRACKS IN THE CITY TO GIVE MAXIMUM PROTEC-
TION FOR THE CITY CENTRE. HE DESIGNED RINGS OF 3 BARRACKS ON THE BORDERS OF THE
CITY LINKED TOGETHER WITH AN OUTER BOULEVARD;IN ADDITION TO AN INNER RING OF THE
BARRACKS TO PROVIDE PROTECTION FOR THE IMPORTANT INSTITUTIONS LIKE THE MINISTRY
OF DEFENCE. THESE BARRACKS HAD ACCESS TO THE MAIN RAILWAY CENTRES.

BY THESE NEW CHANGES HAUSSMANN MADE SURE THAT THE EMPEROR AND THE TROOPS ARE AL-
WAYS READY TO STOP ANY UPCOMING REVOLUTIONS AND THE TROOPS HAVE A COMPLETE ACCESS
TO THE WHOLE CITY.

CAIRO

IN THE LATE HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY, PASHA ISMAIL (KHEDIVE OF EGYPT FROM 1830-
1895) WAS INVITED TO “EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE” THAT WAS ORGANIZED BY HAUSSMANN IN
1867, THAT PROVIDED THE KHEDEIVE WITH A FULL MODEL FOR THE ALTERATION AND BEAU-
TIFICATION OF THE CITY TO CHANGE THE URBAN FABRIC OF CAIRO BASED ON THE MODEL OF
PARIS.

THE KHEDEIVE AND HAUSSMANN KEPT IN CONTACT AND DEVELOPED A FRIENDSHIP. HAUSS-
MANN’S INFLUENCE ON THE PASHA WAS GREAT, AND LED HIM TO RECONSIDER THE URBAN
PLANNING OF CAIRO ON SUCH A SCALE THAT HAS NOT BEEN SEEN IN EGYPT. THE OUTCOME OF
THIS DISCUSSION SPREADS FURTHER TO THE INITIATION OF PROJECTS AS THE SUEZ CANAL
AND THE EGYPTIAN RAIL SYSTEM.

BEAUTY

THE CREATION OF THE VISION FOR A NEW CAIRO WAS COMPLEX URBAN FABRIC EXHIBITED
IN THE STREETS OF OLD CAIRO (KNOWN AS ‘DOWNTOWN CAIRO’) WOULD BE A STRUGGLE TO
ACHIEVE AT SUCH A LARGE SCALE AS HAD BEEN REALIZED IN PARIS. THEREFORE THE KHE-
DIVE DECIDED TO EMPHASIS ON THE WESTERN PART OF THE CITY.

ALI MUBARAK WAS ASSIGNED THE TASK TO TRANSFORM CAIRO INTO THE PAIRS OF THE NILE.
THE NEW STREET PLANS WERE DRAWN AND BUILDINGS WERE BUILT IN THE BEST NEO-CLASSI-
CAL AND NEO-BAROQUE ARCHITECTURAL STYLES. THE KHEDIVIAL SECTOR WAS AN ARCHITEC-
TURAL MASTERPIECE, IT WAS OPEN MUSEUM PRESENTING ALL THE EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURAL
STYLES, COMPETING WITH THE MOST BEAUTIFUL CITIES IN THE WORLD. IT WAS ALSO A
LIVELY MULTICULTURAL HUB KNOWN AS THE “PARIS OF THE EAST”.

CLOT BEY AND MOHAMED ALI STREETS WERE CUT IN 1872 TO CONNECT THE NEW CITY CENTER
WITH CAIRO’S OLD PARTS OF THE CITY AND THE AREA OF THE CITADEL. ON THE NILE BANKS
“QASR AL-NIL BRIDGE” WITH ITS FOUR BRONZE LIONS STATUES CARVED IN ITALY BESIDES
“ABUL-ELA BRIDGE” BY GUSTAVE EIFFEL THE FRENCH ARCHITECT WERE PLACED.

LATER IN 1875, MAGNIFICENT BOULEVARDS WERE OPENED THROUGH THE OLD CITY AREA, CAI-
RO OPERA HOUSE WAS OPENED, TRAMLINES CONNECTING ABBASEYA WITH ATABA ,FOLLOWED BY
SHUBRA WERE INSTALLED. A NEW SEWERAGE SYSTEM WAS IMPLEMENTED, AND TREES IMPORT-
ED FROM THE UNITED STATES, SUDAN, INDIA AND CHINA WERE PLANTED IN THE NEW PAVED
STREETS.

NEW SATELLITE AREAS WERE RAISED SUCH AS ZAMALEK , MAADI AND HELIOPOLIS
STATUES OF POLITICAL AND SOCIETAL LEADERS SUCH AS MUSTAFA KAMEL, TALAAT HARB AND
MOHAMED FARID WERE EXHIBITED INT THE SQUARES AS THEY WERE USED AS OPEN-AIR MUSE-
UMS TO SPREAD NATIONALIST SPIRITS THROUGH ART CONNECTING THE EGYPTIAN POLITICAL
AND SOCIAL HERITAGE WITH DAILY LIFE.

EGYPTIANS AND EUROPEANS- ARTISTS, BUSINESSMEN, INTELLECTUALS AND STATESMEN- WERE
THE RESIDENTS OF DOWN TOWN DURING THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY. IT WAS A LIVELY HUB OF
CULTURAL, POLITICAL AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES, AND A SOURCE OF INSPIRATION FOR
EGYPT’S WRITERS AND ARTISTS. UP-TO-THE-MINUTE FASHIONABLE CAIRO’S PEOPLE STROLLED
THE WALKWAYS OF TALAAT HARB AND QASR AL-NIL STREETS, VISITING THE CITY’S CLASSY
DEPARTMENT STORES PURSUING EUROPE’S LATEST TRENDS. THE PREMIERS OF BOTH FOREIGN
AND EGYPTIAN MOVIES WERE WATCHED IN DOWNTOWN CINEMAS, WHILE

THE AREA WAS ALSO COMMON WITH POLITICAL DISTURBANCES, FIRST IN 1919 WITH THE
REVOLUTION AGAINST THE BRITISH OCCUPATION WHEN PROTESTS WERE LARGELY LOCATED IN
TAHRIR SQUARE AND TALAAT HARB STREET. IN THE 1952 REVOLUTION, THE STREETS OF
DOWNTOWN CAIRO ACCOMMODATED THE PEOPLE CELEBRATING THE SUCCESS OF THE FREE OF-
FICERS MOVEMENT.

LATER ON RESIDENTS OF DOWNTOWN STARTED MOVING AWAY FROM THE NEIGHBOURHOOD TO AR-
EAS LIKE HELIOPOLIS , MAADI AND MOHANDESSIN THE TENDENCY CONTINUES TO THIS DAY,
WITH MANY OF CAIRO’S RESIDENTS MOVING TO THE NEW SATELLITE CITIES. LEAVING THE
LUXURY RESIDENTIAL QUARTER (DOWNTOWN) DESERTED TO THE COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES OF
THE LOWER CLASS RESIDENCE AND SHOPS. THIS HAS CHANGED CAIRO’S BELLE E?POQUE BUILD-
INGS TO EDIFICES OF STONEWASHED BEAUTY.

ALTHOUGH DOWNTOWN CAIRO HAS LOST ITS REPUTATION AS A RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBOURHOOD
AND MOST OF THE BUILDINGS THAT REMAIN FROM THE DISTRICT’S PEAK HAVE FALLEN INTO
DECAY; THE AREA STILL HOLDS THE AIR OF CLASS AND HAS HUGE POTENTIAL.
RECENTLY, GOVERNMENT ENTERPRISES HAVE WORKING ON THE REDEVELOP OF THE PUBLIC
SPACES IN DOWNTOWN, NEVERTHELESS A LOT OF THE RECENT BEAUTIFICATION EFFORTS ARE
PRESENTLY ON HOLD. PRIVATE INVESTMENT ENTERPRISES HAVE BEEN INITIATING A CAMPAIGN
TO FILL FRESH LIFE INTO DOWNTOWN AS A MULTI-FUNCTIONAL AREA THAT ECHOES EGYPT’S
URBAN CHARACTER. WITH THE RISE OF THE PEOPLE’S WILL IN JANUARY 2011 THE EGYP-
TIANS SEIZED TAHRIR SQUARE AND RECLAIMED THE COUNTRY, DOWNTOWN CAIRO HAS TAKEN
A PLACE IN THE HEARTS OF THE PEOPLE AS A PUBLIC SPACE THAT IS IRREPLACEABLE TO
EGYPT’S LIVELY IDENTITY.

POWER

WHEN HAUSSMANN APPLIED TACTICAL SURGICAL INTERVENTIONS BY CUTTING THROUGH PAR-
IS’S URBAN FABRIC IN THE 1800S TO GUARANTEE THE CONTROL OF THE STATE AGAINST ANY
REVOLUTIONS, ALI MUBARAK PASHA REMADE THE SAME APPROACH OF WIDE BOULEVARDS AND
LARGE SQUARS TO RE-BUILD NEW CAIRO FOR THE KHEDIVE ISMAIL FOR THE INAUGURATION
CEREMONY FOR SUEZ CANAL. JANUARY 2011 THIS URBAN FABRIC OBSERVED THE ANGRY MASS-
ES PROTESTING TO DEPOSE THE REGIME IN EGYPT IN TAHRIR SQUARE.

THE EXECUTION OF THE NEW URBAN FABRIC IN CAIRO DID NOT COME WITH THE INTENTION OF
PREVENTING ANY UPCOMING PROTESTS OR REVOLUTIONS AS IN PARIS; ITS MAIN PURPOSE WAS
TO HAVE A MODERN EUROPEAN LIKE FRESH DOWNTOWN. HOWEVER, IT IS ARGUED THAT THOSE
URBAN FABRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AVOIDING PROTESTS WERE UNINTENTIONALLY PASSED ON
TO THE NEW DOWN-TOWN CAIRO. DURING THE JANUARY 2011 PROTEST, MASSES WOULD START
MARCHING SMALL NUMBERS IN SMALL STREETS AND COME TOGETHER IN A WIDER STREET OR
BOULEVARD TOWARD TAHIR SQUARE AS THEIR DESTINATION. THIS WAS REQUIRED TO ENSURE
THE STEADINESS OF THE PROTEST; BECAUSE OF THE FACT THAT THE PROTEST TOOK PLACE
ON A WEEKEND DAY(FRIDAY),AND THE CHANGE OF THE BUILDING USES FROM RESIDENTIAL TO
COMMERCIAL AND BUSINESS AND, THE SMALL NUMBER OF PROTESTERS WERE GATHERING FROM
DOWNTOWN AND THIS WAS BECAUSE OF THE PAIRS COPIED URBAN FABRIC OF DOWNTOWN WAS
DESIGNED NOT TO ALLOW THE GENERATION OF BIG MASSES OF PROTESTERS.

TAHRIR SQUARE WAS SELECTED AS A FINAL THE FINAL GATHERING DESTINATION FOR MANY
REASONS : THE SQUARE OFFERED THE ESSENTIAL SPACE REQUIRED FOR HOLDING THE PRO-
TESTERS AND ENSURING THAT THEY THE PROTESTERS ARE ABLE TO FORM HUGE MASSES
THROUGH THE SURROUNDING SPACES CONNECTED WITH THE SQUARE , IT HAS A LOT OF GOV-
ERNMENTAL FACILITIES OVER LOOKING IT AND IT IS BIG ENOUGH TO ACCOMMODATE UP TO
250000 PERSON. AFTER THE REVOLUTION, THE COUNTRY WAS UNDER THE SUPREME COUNCIL
OF THE ARMED FORCES AND THERE HAS BEEN INCREASING ANTAGONISM AMONG CIVIL POLIT-
ICAL GROUPS AGAINST THE MILITARY RULE AND THE DEMAND FOR A CIVIL GOVERNMENT AND
PRESIDENT. THIS HAS LED TO A NUMBER OF DEMONSTRATIONS IN FRONT OF THE MINISTRY
OF DEFENSE BUILDING. THAT ENDED UP WITH PROTESTANTS GETTING INJURED AND KILLED,
WHICH ENDED WHEN THE ARMY BUILT A CONCRETE WALL ACROSS “MOHAMED MAHMOUD STREET”
WHERE THE MINISTRY IS SITUATED. THIS WASN’T THE ONLY WALL TO BE BUILT, SOME OTH-
ER WALLS WERE CONSTRUCTED INCLUDING ONE IN FRONT OF THE MINIS-TRY OF INTERIOR TO
BLOCK THE PATH TOWARDS IT.

SO THE URBAN FABRIC THAT CAME FROM PAIRS WAS INTENDED TO PREVENT THE POTENTIAL
USE OF BARRICADES BY THE PEOPLE TO STOP ANY UP COMING REVOLUTION ENDED UP IN CAI-
RO BY BUILDING CONCRETE WALLS AND WHAT HAPPENED IN CAIRO WAS THE RESPOND OF THE
MILITARY AND POLICE TO PROTECT THEIR INSTITUTIONS FROM THE PROTESTERS.

CONCLUSION

FINALLY, FOR THOSE WHO CLAIM THAT CAIRO WAS MADE EXACTLY LIKE PARIS WITH THE SAME
INTENTION, IT WASN’T,BECAUSE :
1. THE LINK BETWEEN THE PRESENT HISTORIC CITY AND ITS 19TH CENTURY ANNEX IN
EACH CASE IS DIFFERENT. IN PARIS, THE MEDIEVAL CITY WAS BEING CUT AND REMOVED
LEAVING ONLY WITH ONLY LITTLE MONUMENTS AS PROOF OF THE PAST. WHILE IN CAIRO THE
OLD CITY WAS LEFT UNHARMED. SOME NEW STREETS WERE NEWLY CUT THROUGH THE COMPACT
FABRIC.

2. DIFFERENT ARCHITECTURE STYLES IN BOTH CITIES. PARIS HAD A FIRM BUILDING
CODE THAT GUIDED THE BUILDING STYLES AND ELEVATION MEASUREMENTS WHICH SHAPED A
DEFINITE LEVEL OF CONSISTENCY NOT FOUND IN CAIRO BECAUSE ALI MUBARAK DIDN’T SET
ANY RULES.

3. HAUSSMANN’S PLAN WAS TO ALLOW THE FRENCH ARMY TO TO HAVE ACCESS TO THE
STREETS IN CASE ANOTHER REVOLUTION HAPPENED AS FOR ALI MUBARAK AND THE KHEDIVE
WHAT HAD BEEN BUILT WAS TO PUT CAIRO ON THE MAP AS A EUROPEAN BEAUTIFUL CITY.

IT WAS A COINCIDENCE OVER TIME THAT WHAT WAS PLANNED FOR PARIS HAPPENED IN CAIRO.

A FINAL WORD, INSTEAD OF USING PLANNING AS A INSTRUMENT TO CONTROL, IT SHOULD BE
USED TO PROVIDE WHAT PEOPLE NEED AND THIS WOULD BE THE WAY TO PREVENT THE PRO-
TESTING OF PEOPLE. 

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