Guyabano formulation with lower cost. The pulp intervals, decoction

Guyabano drink
is a nutritious and can help relieve headaches due to its nutritional
composition that can provide health benefits. This study aimed to utilize fruit
and leaf decoction for an optimum drink formulation with lower cost. The pulp
intervals, decoction and citric acid were used. It made a total of 15
treatments using central composite design. The optimum product was the
combination of 150g pulp, 125 mL decoction and 2 tsp citric acid with a
relative cost of ?26.898/750 mL. The TSS, pH, viscosity and %TA of the drink
were 17.2 oBrix, 3.4, 44.5cP and 1.263, respectively. The microbial load of the
result was <1 x 101. Consumer testing showed the optimum product with 36% likeness showing it has market potentials. (Claros, 2015)                                   Antibiotic resistance is a problem in healthcare sector in a large part of the world in progressing  countries. The spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in hospital and community settings remains a widely unresolved problem and a heavy burden to health services. Although medical practitioners can resort to second- or third-choice drugs for treating these patients, the use of these synthetic drugs may subject the patient to a higher risk, due to the possibility of the drugs producing more harmful side effects. To address this challenge, actions must be taken to reduce this problem, such as controlling the use of antibiotics, understanding the genetic mechanisms of resistance and developing new antibiotics and new therapeutic strategies. Advances in identifying new sources of natural products with antimicrobial activities and expanding antibiotic chemical diversity are providing chemical leads for new drugs. (Valle Jr. 2015)                    Guyabano, usually eaten as fresh fruit or made into desserts, has properties that can heal scurvy and dysentery. Guyabano trees provide insecticidal properties, while the oil from its seeds can eradicate pests such as lice and bedbugs. Conventionally, its leaves cure boils, abscesses, skin diseases, coughs, colds, nervous disorders and digestive problems, and are used for its tranquilizing effect. (Enriquez, 2014)                    Forty raw, ground beef samples were collected from wet markets in the towns of Laguna, Philippines. The samples were enriched using Tryptic Soy Broth containing cefixime, cefsulodin and vancomycin and were plated out on Cefixime-Tellurite Sorbitol MacConkey Agar (CT-SMAC). 400  presumptive isolates were obtained and screened for typical E. coli O157:H7 characteristics. Polymerase chain reaction using the E. coli DASTM Kit likewise confirmed these isolates to be E. coli. The isolates were also tested for genes coding for shiga-like toxin 1 and shiga-like toxin 2 using PCR and slt I and slt II primers, respectively. Both isolates were negative for slt I but positive for slt II. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef collected from wet markets in Laguna was 0%. However, the presence of non-sorbitol-fermenting, non-?-glucuronidase-producing E. coli in the collected samples was 5%. (Flores, 2013)   Foreign                           Extraintestinal infections are caused by a bacterium in the name of Escherichia coli. This study tests if a food reservoir can be made possible for e. coli. Sources are comprised prospectively collected from women with urinary tract infection, retail meat, and restaurant/ready-to-eat foods. This bacteria is evaluated for antimicrobial drug susceptibility and O:H serotype by means of comparing it using 4 different genotyping methods. Several (seventeen to be exact) clonal groups are identified that contain e. coli.  E. coli from retail chicken and honeydew lemon are closely relatable to a human's UTI. This study provides strong evidence for the role of food reservoirs in the dissemination of E. coli causing common community-acquired UTIs. (Boerlin et al, 2010)                    Annona muricata (Guyabano leaf) is a tropical plant which has some medicinal merits, but it also have poisonous effects. This focuses on its phytochemicals contents, bioactivity, biological actions and toxicological aspects of extracts and isolated compounds, as well as the uses of A. muricata, with the objective of encouraging further studies on extracts and fruit pulp used for human consumption. Using in vitro studies, extracts and phytochemicals of this have been described as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-protozoan, and cytotoxic to tumor cells. In addition, this study support the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic extracts of A. muricata leaves. (Tellez, 2016)                    Clostridium perfringens (Bacillus welchii) can cause food contaminating and infections in intestine in humans and animals. Lately, it was shown to generate a group of bacteria fenced in a self-produced extracellular matrix. With tolerance to disinfectants, and physical and ecosystem problems, biofilms have been connected. The epidemic of C. perfringens biofilm toward sterilizer is alarming to only few people. There are five disinfectant to Bacillus welchii that is used in our house and as well as in farms were analyzed. In this study, we present that mono-species biofilms of Clostridium perfringens can secure the cells of bacterium from the action of potassium monopersulfate, quaternary ammonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and glutaraldehyde solutions. However, sodium hypochlorite solution is so effective on C. perfringens biofilms. This study indicates that C. perfringens biofilm is a powerful defensive mechanism to bacterium. (Anon, 2016)                                                                             The antibacterial activities of some plant products was improved by fermentation. Fresh fruits were blended in the same way with the ripe fruits that were mixed wholly and fermented for one week. In extracting fermented and unfermented blends to acquire hexane, ethyl and methanol extracts, which were tested against standard strains of E. Coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. pyogenes, using modified agar diffusion technique, cold maceration were used. The micro-dilution method was applied for identifying the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All the other extracts inhibited the growth of all the bacteria with the exception of hexane extracts, but the corresponding fermented extracts inhibited greater. The study showed both the fermented and unfermented fruits of Annona muricata have antibacterial activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria, but the potency is higher with the fermented fruits. (Otto, 2015)                    Everyone can be implicated by E. coli especially HIV/AIDS patient. It strains isolated from different parts of the world show a low to high level resistance to antimicrobial agents. The goal of this paper is to identify the antimicrobial susceptibility in vitro among 64 EAEC strains isolated from children and adults with diarrhea. 270 E. coli strains were isolated from children and adults. Using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method, we checked the susceptibility of different kinds of antibiotics. It has been showed that 75% of strains isolated showed multidrug resistance, i.e. resistance to >3 antimicrobial agents. Most of the isolates
showing multidrug resistance were from children below 5 years in age. An
increase in resistance of EAEC strains to quinolones was observed in the study.
Our study showed that monitoring sensitivity to antibiotics commonly used in
acute and persistent diarrhea is necessary for optimum selection of effective
antibiotics and elimination of antibiotics with little therapeutic value.
Further clinical epidemiological and laboratory studies are needed to clarify
these issues. (Raju, 2009)


Related Studies

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                 Guyabano has been known to its
curative properties. This study determines the efficacy of Annona muricata
(Guyabano) leaves as a bio-control agent against Staphylococcus aureus. Strains
of S. aureus are brought to DOST while samples of guyabano leaves were gathered
from Mandug, Davao City. A hundred gram of leaves were used to get the extract
of Guyabano through rotary evaporator. Three trials and replications were
utilized by the disk diffusion method to determine its zone of inhibition:
results showed that after a 24-hour treatment, there are no zone of inhibition
on the experimental variable with the use of 100 percent concentration of
Guyabano leaf extract. Despite all of that, zone of inhibition of oxacillin has
been active in the zone of 11.5 mm. These results had proved that Guyabano Leaf
Extract can’t be a Bio-control Agent Against Staphylococcus aureus. Further
studies are warranted. (Baguhin et al, 2014)


                  Resistance rates among Gram-negative dangerous
bacteria are growing in the Asia-Pacific region. The Comparative Activity of
Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT) II study observed the carbapenem susceptibility
and low inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem
against 1260 major Gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospitalised patients
at 20 centres in five Asia-Pacific countries (New Zealand, the Philippines,
Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) during 2010. Pseudomonas
aeruginosa (n = 625),
Enterobacteriaceae (n = 500), and other Gram-negative
pathogens including Acinetobacter
baumannii (n = 135)
were gathered from patients with bloodstream infection (32.2%), nosocomial
pneumonia including ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.1%), and complicated
intra-abdominal infection (9.7%), with 36.7% being isolated from patients in an
Intensive Care Unit. As high as 29.8% of P.
aeruginosa and 73.0% of A. baumannii isolates were not susceptible to at
least a carbapenem, where the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (97.2%) were
susceptible to all carbapenems. Respective MIC50/MIC90 values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the
organisms, respectively) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem were: 0.38/8,
1.5/32 and 0.38/16 mg/L for P.
aeruginosa; 0.023/0.094, 0.25/0.5 and 0.032/0.094 mg/L for
Enterobacteriaceae; and 32/64, 32/128 and 32/64 mg/L for A. baumannii. Doripenem and
meropenem had comparable activity against P.
aeruginosa, both being more active than imipenem. All carbapenems were
highly potent against Enterobacteriaceae, although imipenem demonstrated higher
MIC values than doripenem and meropenem. The three carbapenems showed less
activity against A. baumannii.
The high prevalence of carbapenem resistance amongst important nosocomial
pathogens (P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii) warrants
rigorous infection control measures and proper antimicrobial use in the
Asia-Pacific region.

(Lagamayo, 2012)

              Nowadays, diabetes mellitus are
alarmingly considered to be one of the leading reasons of morbidity and
mortality. However, Filipinos without enough money and funds favor the use of
traditional herbal medications because of its cheap cost and easy
accessibility. Guyabano is known for its many uses. Aside from its anti-cancer
properties, the guyabano leaves possess anti-diabetic attributes. (Allera et
al, 2010)



           A inclusive proteomic examination
of pathogens in food after handling with disinfectants based on ammonium salts
of pyridinium oxime was conducted. Substitution in proteomes of the
Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the
Gram-negative one, Escherichia coli, were assessed. Up and
down-ordered proteins in these bacteria after living under the restriction with
four different sterelizer according on chloride and bromide salts of pyridinium
oxime were recognized and their cellular positions and uses were determined by
gene ontology searching. Proteome changes offered here demonstrate different
procedures of action of these disinfectants. In the Gram-positive food
pathogen Bacillus subtilis, the restricted solutions seem to act
mainly at the cell surface and can cause important adaptations of membrane and
cell surface proteins. Otherwise, intracellular proteins were more influenced
in the Gram-negative pathogen Escherichia coli. This
experimentation is a presentation to the investigation of the virulence and
pathogenicity of food bacterium and their life under bad conditions, and can
also lead the way for further generation of new inhibitors of microbial
maturation and investigation of mechanism of their movement.. (Gajdošik, 2017,
June 06)

    This research investigated the
effect of molecular weight (Mw) and particle size characteristics on the
antibacterial property of chitosan nanoparticles (CNs) for implementation as a
vegetable wash disinfectant. Formulations are ready from two different Mw of
chitosan outcome in three different size types of CNs; 300–400 nm (i.e. LS
and HS), 500–600 nm (i.e. LL) and 700–800 nm (i.e. HL). A
time-conditional antibacterial assay versus Escherichia coli was
used as a representation and demostrated that CNs with smaller size (i.e. LS
and HS) generated from either low or high Mw of chitosan were powerful
antibacterial agents, leading to an approximate 2 log trimmimg in the member of
bacteria within half a day. Once demonstrated to have better antibacterial activity,
all CNs were devised as vegetable wash sterelizer in citric acid and evaluated
using an in vitro inactivation appraisal with E. coli and
a pathogenic bacterium (Salmonella Typhimurium), known to be
possible pollutes on vegetables. The results showed that the smallest CNs could
majorly reduce the number of E. coli at 3.38 log CFU/mL within
15 min. On the other hand, the number of S. Typhimurium was
majorly reduced 2.83 log CFU/mL within 15 min using the biggest CNs.
Lastly, the formulations with the highest antibacterial activity were picked to
experiment their ability to lessen the number of treated bacteria under
imitated vegetable washing condition on young lettuce. The wash substance
containing CNs was found to be the most powerful in eliminating more than a 1
log reduction of both treated E. coli and S. Typhimurium
populations, advising their potential use as powerful disinfectant in washing
fresh vegetables. (Assavanig, et al, 2017)


                   Escherichia coli is
a worldwide pandemic clone, causing predominantly community-onset
antimicrobial-resistant infection. Its pandemic spread was classified in 2008
by utilizing multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum
?-lactamase-producing E. coli from
three continents. Subsequent research has cleared the issue about the worldwide
prevalence of ST131 harbouring a wide range of virulence and resistance genes
on a transferable plasmid. A high prevalence of the clone (?30%–60%)
has been modified among fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. It is a variety of ?-lactamase genes; mostly  these include CTX-M family ?-lactamases, and,
less frequently, TEM, SHV and CMY ?-lactamases. Our knowledge of ST131’s
geographical distribution is incomplete. Antimicrobial -resistant E. coli from human infection in Europe (mostly the UK),
North America, Canada, Japan and Korea has been revealed. High rates are
suggested from limited data in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. The clone has
also been detected in animals and foods. The clinical spectrum of illness  described is same as that for other E. coli, with urinary tract infection. This can range
from cystitis to life-threatening sepsis. Infection occurs in humans of all
ages. Therapy must be given to the antimicrobial resistance phenotype of the
infecting isolate and the site of infection. (Rogers et al, 2010, November 16)