For during rice storage. Non-chemical methods gain importance in

For thousands of years, rice has been a staple
food source for many parts of the world. Its prolong storage is utmost
important for future use and to maintain food securities. Rice export has been
increasing  every  year, 
as  well  as  legislative  restrictions 
and consumers  demand  for  certified  chemical 
free  rice. This exerts the rice processing
industry  to  new 
challenges. As much as 50%–60% cereal grains can be lost during the
storage stage due only to the lack of technical inefficiency. Use of scientific
storage methods can reduce these losses to as low as 1%–2% (Kumar
and Kalita, 2017). Losses caused by insects include not only the
direct consumption of kernels but also include accumulations of frass, exuviae,
webbing and insect cadavers. Chemical pesticides play
crucial roles in the management of insects. However, excessive and irrational
use of pesticides has become a major concern and obstacle to sustainable
agriculture. As a result, the quality and security of agricultural products are
reduced and the ecological and environmental integrities are threatened. This
paper reviewed the advancements in development and application of non-chemical technologies
for insect pest management during rice storage. Non-chemical methods gain
importance in stored product Integrated Pest Management for pests control, as
policies aiming to minimize the application of residual chemical insecticides
are being adopted by many companies and a growing market of organic produce. Most
storage losses are due to inadequate and poor storage facilities and attacks by
insect pests and diseases, causing enormous losses annually. Ancient literature
and archaeological evidence indicate some of the ?rst technologies for
protecting harvested grains from insects included hermetic sealing to lower O2
and increase CO2; sieving or ?oatation to remove infested kernels; burning
of badly infested grain; burning sulphur as a fumigant; adding chalk dust, ashes,
and charcoal as desiccants; adding olive oil; and using toxic botanicals (Panagiotakopulu
et al., 1995). Here some of the
methods for non-chemical management of storage pests are listed which were
referred by different researchers