Executive rich. In today’s fast and modern world a

Executive summary

Differences between people are still important and sensitive
topic in our society.  People’s lives
affect their skin colour, beliefs, political opinions, orientation and whether
they live in poverty or wealth. This report focuses on five poverty indicators
applied in ten countries. Selected indicators are mainly related to the growth
of the population. It is known that certain nations have a better starting
position for a dignified life. The purpose of this project is to compare the
numbers and understand how we classify countries.

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Introduction

 

It is very problematic to clearly identify which
country is poor and on the other hand which country is rich. In today’s fast
and modern world a variety of factors play important roles.  This report focuses on the comparison of
poverty in ten countries. Six of them are part of the Third World category,
namely Congo, Cuba, Cameroon, Tunisia, Iran and Bangladesh. Representative of
the Second World is China. United States and Sweden are representing the First
World. (Calvert, Calvert,2007)
The comparison is based on five indicators that generally refer to population
growth. These indicators are fertility rate, undernourishment, contraception
use, population growth rate and life expectancy. Sorting is made clear in
tables, charts, using percentage and even verbally explained.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                     
Picture 2

 

                                         

Aims and Objectives

 

·       
This report shows how the listed countries stand in comparison
with specific indicators.

·       
It encounters the differences between our estimates and the
reality represented by the numbers.

·       
It considers the accuracy and usability of individual
indicators to measure poverty and the rate of development.

·       
It asks whether GDP is an appropriate indicator of poverty.

 

Backgroud to study

 

There are more
than 70 different definitions of poverty. In essence, the same thing is being
said, having the same basis. Most often, poverty is referred to as the social status
of a person characterized by material shortage (Linhart, Petrousek, 1996)

Poverty is
multidimensional, which means that lack of material resources or material
deprivation is not only reflected in income but also in many other life
indicators. Second, poverty is dynamic. It is defined as a process in which the
lack of material resources is conditioned by a series of other factors on which
temporality or persistence of poverty depends. Finally, poverty is relative,
thus defined as a certain social standard.

(Sirovátka, Mareš,
Ve?erník, Zelený, 2002)

 

“Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a
violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate
effectively in society. It means not having enough to feed and cloth a family,
not having a school or clinic to go to, not having land on which to grow one’s
food or a job to earn one’s living, not having access to credit. It means
insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and
communities. It means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living
on marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or
sanitation”

(UN Statement, June 1998 – signed by the heads of all UN agencies)

 

As we can see poverty can´t be measured just by one indicator.
It is a complex of many factors acting together.

For this report indicators below were extracted from Poverty
workshop handbook given by the teacher.

 

Fertility
rate, total (births per woman)
 

Average number of children that would be born to
a woman over her lifetime if (1) she were to experience the exact current
age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) through her lifetime, and (2) she were
to survive from birth through the end of her reproductive life
 

Undernourishment –
Population undernourished (% of total population)
 

Prevalence of undernourishment in a population
being the percentage of the population whose food consumption is insufficient
to meet dietary requirements
 

Contraception use – Contraceptive prevalence rate
(%)
 

Married women (women in union as well) from 15–49
who are using, or whose partners are using, any form of contraception (traditional
or modern).
 

Population
growth rate (annual %)  

Average annual exponential growth rate per year
 

Life
expectancy

Predicted life
expectancy at birth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Methodology

 

The main source for this report was based on the
poverty data table that was provided on MyLearning. Five arbitrary indicators
and countries have been selected and then used in the table below. In the
papers provided by our lecturer, we found an explanation for each of the indicators
and table with the explanations. Based on the data provided, poverty was
compared in these countries. Other reports for example Human Development Report
2016, articles from UNDP and literature were used as an inspiration for writing
this report.

There were difficulties in obtaining
data and creating a spreadsheet in the form of a lack of information and data
from a certain area, inconsistencies in the facts presented in different
sources, and mistakes in ranking countries due to a different mathematical
approach, where most percentages may not always be the best.

At the beginning difficulties arisen witch
choosing the indicators because it matters which indicator is chosen in term of
spreading a certain message about poverty.

 

 

 

Presentation of results

 

The results are shown in the clear table,  in the charts and then described. This report
focuses only on five indicators and it is very difficult to classify the
country among the poor states only with the information used. In the analysis
of the results, graphs are briefly described and unusual findings are
highlighted.

 

Indicators
 
 
 
 

Life expectancy
–Predicted life expectancy at birth

Fertility rate
-total births per woman

Undernourishment
–Population undernourished (%of total population)

Population
growth rate (annual %)

Contraception
use –Contraceptive prevalence rate (%)

Average ranking

Final ranking
 

GDP

Intuitive ranking

 
Country

 
Value

 
Rank

 
Value

 
Rank

 
Value

 
Rank

 
Value

 
Rank

 
Value

 
Rank

Value

Rank

 
Bangladesh

63.1

8

3.2

6

30

4

2.2

6

58

7

6,2

7

2053

9

10

 
China

72.5

6

1.7

3

12

2

1.2

4

87

1

3,2

4

6757

6

4

 
Tunisia

73.5

5

2

4

0

0

1.9

5

66

6

4

5

8371

4

6

 
Sweden

80.5

2

1.7

3

0

0

0.3

1

78

2

1,6

1

32525

2

1

USA
 

77.9

3

2

4

0

0

1

3

76

3

2,6

3

41890

1

2

 
Congo

45.8

10

6.7

8

74

5

3

9

31

9

8,2

9

714

10

8

 
Iran

70.2

7

2.1

5

4

1

2.4

7

74

5

5

6

7968

5

5

 
Japan

82.3

1

1.3

1

0

0

0.5

2

56

8

2,4

2

31267

3

3

 
Cameroon

49.8

9

4.9

7

26

3

2.7

8

26

10

7,4

8

2299

8

7

 
Cuba

77.7

4

1.6

2

91

6

0

0

73

4

3,2

4

6000

7

9

Analysis and discussion of results

Chart 1

 

The first indicator of poverty chosen for this report is life
expectancy. From the table and chart above, it can be seen that there is a
difference of more than 36 years between the country where the life expectancy
is the highest which is Japan and the lowest which is Congo, this difference is
remarkable nowadays. The factors that play a role here are clearly access to
health care, food, drinking water, state stability and security. (Collier, 2007)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chart 2

 

There were several similar results in birth-rate comparison. The third
place belongs to Sweden together with China. Here, however, is important to
draw attention to China’s policy, which only allows according to Xinhua News
Agency two children per family from October 2015. Who knows what the results
would look like if every couple in China had a free choice as in Sweden and could
decide how many children they would like to bring to the world. Two children on
average are born to women in Tunisia and in the USA. Congo, a country with the
highest birth rate, has an interesting situation, as it dominates in the
previous indicator, where the results show that it is a country with the lowest
life expectancy. The least children are born in Japan.

The level of birth rates is also influenced by external
“non-biological” factors such as population policy of the state,
housing situation of the partners, employment in the labour market, religion,
etc. (Collier, 2007)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 UNDERNOURISHMENT (%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chart 3

 

 

There were several problems with the lack of information during dating
the results in undernourishment. The information was missing from a total of 4
selected countries, including Tunisia, Sweden, USA and Japan. Therefore, this
indicator must be taken into account as it does not contain complete
information. The available data revealed that 91% of the Cuban population
suffers from malnutrition. Even though Cuba is confronted with this problem,
people live in a relatively high age – an average of 77.7 years. The country
with the lowest level of undernourishment is Iran with only 4%, even though the
state has to deal with constant riots.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POPULATION
GROWTH RATE (ANNUAL IN %)

Chart 4

 

The largest annual population growth on earth is taken by Congo with
3%. Smallest population growth is in Sweden, only 0.3% per year. According to
the findings on The World Bank web this is less than 30,000 children per year
for the 9,903 million inhabitants currently living in Sweden.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTRACEPTION
USE (IN %)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chart 5

 

Using contraception is another indicator. In this report, we do not
distinguish a specific type of contraceptive; we work with data using all types
of protection. The highest consumption of contraception is in China, where 87%
of sexually active people use a certain type of protection. However, this is
not going to be so simple, since, as mentioned above, it is illegal to have
more than two children in China, so it is difficult to see how much influence
the state and the fear of being punished have and how many people decide themselves
to use protection. Right behind China, there is Sweden with 78% and the United
States with 76%.Country where peopleare using the least protection is Cameroon,
where only 26% of the population uses contraception. A big difference of this
indicator makes the availability of contraceptive material, education, the
desire for personal careers and professional growth and traditions. (Collier,
2007)

 

 

 

Chart 6

 

According to the table 1 and chart 6, country with the highest GDP is the
USA, second is Sweden and third Japan. Country with the lowest GDP is Congo.  Gross Domestic Product is the total value of goods and services
produced and provided in a country during one year. GDP is often used as an indicator of economic
development. It compares the economic level of individual states or regions or
the development of a certain region over the time. (Mankiw, Taylor, 2006)

Even though GDP often serves as one of the basic macroeconomic
indicators, it is not a perfect one. GDP is capturing only what is officially
created. It can not capture, for example, domestic products of the population
of the state, home growns, illegal production and others. Therefore, it can not
absorb all the wealth and capture the welfare of the population. It is
problematic for developing countries, because local people get much of their
livelihood through their own productions, they build their homes out of the
material available in nature and they wear homemade clothes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Before completing the spreadsheet, an intuitive
ranking based on the author’s general knowledge and belief was made. After that,
the exact order of the countries was calculated. In most cases, the results
were very similar. The biggest difference between the intuitive and the really
well-ordered ranking was  with Cuba,
according to the intuitive ranking Cuba was placed at 9th place, which means
the country was allocated between the poor ones, but according to the facts and
dates Cuba was placed with China at the 4th place. The first was Sweden in both
rankings.

 

 

Evaluation and Conclusion

 

In this report, countries were ranked on the basis of indicators. The
best results from selected countries achieved Sweden. The concept of poverty
was explained by different definitions and the correctness of using GDP as an
indicator of poverty was considered. The report has highlighted how diverse
people´s live can be in today’s world, and hopefully made us feel thankful for
our situation.

 

 

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