Enzymes enzymes have gained interest for their widespread uses

Enzymes are actively involved
in improving food production and
components, such as flavor, aroma, color, texture, appearance and nutritive
value. They are mainly used by the food industry to optimize the process.
Enzyme aid in catalyzing and accelerating reactions, and it can be obtained
from different sources, such as animals, plants and microorganisms. Enzymes are
not toxic and can be inactivated when desired reaction has been completed. Most
important enzymes which are used in food processing are proteases, lipases,
transglutminase, pectinase, lactase, phytase, laccase, xylanase and cellulase.

Introduction:

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Microbial enzymes have
gained interest for their widespread uses in various fields, one of them
is food processing. These enzymes are biomolecules that is protein with
catalytic properties, Not all biological molecules capable of catalytic
activity. Microorganisms are the primary source of enzymes, because they are
cultured in large quantities in short span of time and genetic manipulations
can be done on bacterial cells to enhance the enzyme production. These microbial enzymes
can be produced commercially by submerged culture and semisolid culture
procedures.

Microbial
enzymes suitable
biocatalysts for food industry, enzymes are used to improve characteristics in
the final product such as texture, shelf life, colour, flavour, odour. Currently,
enzymes are also being used for monitoring the food process, increasing the
bioavailability of minerals, and as therapeutic agents.

Microbial enzymes mainly
used in food processing of milk, meat, brewing, juice  and dairy products represent a wide area in
the food industry, cream,
cheese, butter, ice cream and yogurt. The principal function of microbial
enzymes is to improve the process or characteristic of final products, such as
flavour, colour, consistency, composition, appearance and structure which
produces a large variety of products such as milk. The profound
understanding of the role of enzymes in the food manufacturing and ingredients
industry have improved the basic processes to provide better markets with safer
and higher quality products. Bread making is one of the most common food
processing techniques globally. The use of enzymes in bread manufacturing
enhance taste, texture. Amylase, alone or in combination with other enzymes, is
added to the bread flour for retaining the moisture more efficiently to
increase softness, freshness and shelf life. Rennet, a combination of
chymosin and pepsin, is used for coagulation of milk into solid curds for
cheese production and liquid whey. Other
proteases find applications for accelerated cheese processing and in reduction
of allergenic properties of milk products.

Peptidases are used to
remove bitterness produced by proteinases during ripening. Transglutaminases
aids in cross-linking of peptide bonds and enhance functional properties of
dairy products. Lipases are used for development of characteristic flavor. These
enzymes hydrolyse short chain fatty acids, thus decreasing the formation of
trans-fatty acid and obtaining about 15-30 times more flavor than traditional
processes. Lactose intolerance is the lack of ability of human being to digest
lactose due to deficiency of lactase enzyme. Lactase catalyzes hydrolysis of
lactose to glucose and galactose, and therefore, is used as a digestive aid.

Beverage industry
includes non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. In non-alcoholic category fruit
juice processing is involved. Application of cellulases, amylases, and
pectinases during fruit juice processing for maceration, liquefaction, and
clarification, improve yield quality,
stability of juices and cost effectiveness. Alcoholic group comprised distilled
spirits, wine and beer. In the brewing industries, microbial enzymes are used
to digest cell wall during extraction of plant material to provide improved
yield, color, and aroma and clearer products. Microbial amylases may be utilized in the
distilled alcoholic beverages to hydrolyze starch to sugars prior to
fermentation and to minimize or remove turbidities due to starch. 

Meat products are major
source of food proteins, and also minerals and vitamins. Improvement of
organoleptic characteristics is a huge challenge to meat industry.
Tenderization of meat by use of .proteolytic enzymes helps to avoid the use of
chemicals and brines. Papin and ficin are used, transglutaminase is widely
employed. Some advantages of transglutaminase over other enzymes are low cost,
also this enzyme is used in food processing to enhance nutritional value as it
can add essential amino acids in protein matrices. This enzyme helps in binding
of small pieces of meat creating larger pieces. Further, it also improves
texture, firmness, elasticity, emulsifies and homogenizes meat products such as
sausages. The main characteristics of bakery products are softness, longer
freshness, and crunchy cover on bread. Apart from compensating the variations
in flour, microbial enzymes are important in improving flavor and contributes
to more than a quarter of world bakery market. Lipoxygenases whitens the dough,
while ?-amylase, xylanase,protease and lipases enhance elasticity and quality
of dough by way of formation of a homogenous and fine texture. Disadvantages of
enzymes includes that enzyme temperatures and pressures still need o be
maintained which costs money, the PH also needs to be controlled, many enzymes
are expensive to produced and have to feed microbes which is also expensive.

Conclusion

The prospects of
industrial uses of microbial enzymes have increased greatly in 21st century and
continuously increasing as enzymes have significant potential for many
industries to meet demand of rapidly growing population and cope exhaustion of
natural resources. It had been showed here that the enzymes have enormous
potential in various food processing fields. Alternatively, these biomolecules
may be used consistently to meet continuously rising demand of food supply.
.
The enzymes are effectively utilized in many industries for higher quality
productions at accelerated rate of reaction with innocuous pollution and cost
effectiveness.

 

References

In Green Technologies in
Food Production and Processing (pp. 327-361). Edited by Boye, J.I. &
Arcand, Y. Ed. Springer USA (2012)  .

 Agro FOOD Industry Hi Tech – vol. 27(4) –
July/August 2016 Simpson, B. K., Rui, X., & XiuJie, J. Enzyme-assisted food
processing.

Microorganism produced
enzymes in the food industry , Izabel Soares, Zacarias Távora,
Rodrigo Patera Barcelos and Suzymeire BaroniFederal University of the Bahia
Reconcavo / Center for Health Sciences

Brazi .

 

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