DIFINATION social media is “the relationships that exist between

 

DIFINATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA:

 

Internet is a great boon in our life. It helps in every aspects of life. The internet
has a greater impact on people today than ever before. It has been a continual
source of news, entertainment, and education for users around the world for
more than 20 years. The most innovative feature of information technology is
social media.  The definition of social
media is “the relationships that exist between network of people” (Walter &
Riviera, 2004).  Social media or Social Networking is one of the
Technological foundation of Web 2.0 which allow people to create ,share,
exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and network s. It is the
social interaction among people in which they can create share or exchange
information. Furthermore Social Media depends on mobile and web-based
technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals
share, co-create, discuss user generated content.

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In the last ten years, the online
world has changed dramatically. Thanks to the invention of social media, young
men and women now exchange ideas, feelings, personal information, pictures and
videos at a truly astonishing rate.

Social media is a rising trends in the
world today. Communication skills are exemplified by use of social media
networking. Social media networking allows for a communication outlet. Social
media is being utilized by students, parents, businesses, and religious
organizations. It is being used in many forms by many different platforms for
many reasons. The transmission device is anything that carries a message,
including sound waves, light waves, pieces of paper, mobile-phone signals and
screens, the Internet, computer monitors, billboards, radio and television
signals, and an endless number of additional carriers (Baack, 2012). Social
media is employing many transmission devices, including mobile devices and
computers.

Social media is that means that employs mobile and web based
technology to create highly interactive platforms via which individuals and
community share, co-create, discuss and 12

 

modifies
user-generated content (Kietzmannn, 2012). Social media is a phrase being
tossed around a lot. It is a website that does not just give you information
but interact with you while giving you information. It is a group of internet
based application that allows the creation and exchange of users generated
content. It is easy to confuse social media with social news because we often
refer to members of the news as the media. Adding to it, that social news site
is also social media site. Some media website includes:

 

?
Social Bookmarking: interact by tagging website and searching through
website book marked by others (Blink list, simple).

?
Social News: interact by voting for articles and commenting on them
(Digg, propello).

?
Social Networking: interact by adding friends, commenting on photo and
profiles, sharing groups for discussions (Facebook, 2go, BB chat)

?
Social Photo and Video Sharing: interact by sharing photos or videos and
commenting on the user submission. (Youtube and Fliki).

? Wikis: interact by
adding articles and editing existing articles. (Wikipedia, wikia).

 

Social media
refers to the means of interaction among people in which they create, share,
exchange and comment among themselves in different networks. Andreas and
Michael (2010) are of the opinion that social media is a group of internet
based application that builds on the ideological foundation and allows the
creation and exchange of users – generated content. Social media has become one
of the major channel of chatting through platforms such as 2go, BB chat,
blogger and wiki a. There has been an increase in the mobile social media which
has created new opportunity for browsing.

The internet usage effect of social media, in views of
Nielsen (2012) is that, students continue to spend more time on the social
media than any site. The total time spent on social media across mobile devices
increased by 37%, 121 billion minutes in July 2012 compared to 88 billion
minutes in July 2011.

Kaplan and
Haenlein (2010) classified social media into six different classes as follows:

1.
Collaborative Project (Wikipedia)

2. Blogs and
Micro blogs (Twitter)

3. Content
Communities (Youtube)

4. Social
Networking Site (Facebook; 2go; BB chat)

5. Virtual
Game World (World of war craft)

6. Virtual
Second World (Second life)

Technology
includes the blogs, picture sharing, music sharing, crowd sourcing, e-mail,
instant messaging and voice over. These services could be integrated via social
network aggregation platforms.

 

HISTORY
OF SOCIAL MEDIA:

The
history of social media is very amazing and developing. In 1969 1st commercial
on line service was developed by CompuServe. First E MAIL was sent in 1971. In
the year 1978 BBS Bulletin Board Systems were introduced. Year 1989 was
historical because World Wide Web was introduced.  First Blog was created by Links.net by
Swarthmore student in 1994. In 1997 first modern social network launched. It
was six Degrees, the first modern social network. It allowed users to create a
profile and to become friend with other users. It had about 1 million members
at its peak popularity. AOL instant also had been introduced also that year. Social
media is famous for its blogs, where every being has freedom to write to view
and to express. Blog platform, Blogger launched in 1999. Year 2003 was really
progressive in making social media history social networking and Bookmarking
sites appears Linkedin launched, first mainstream social network devoted to
business. The profiles are based on a resume style layout, where  members can interact through private
messaging.  Photobucket launched, the
first major photo sharing site to link its members. Deilicious launched, the
first social bookmarking site, where users can bookmark a site, log it and
share it with others. Skype, another important and famous social communication
site was introduced this year. My Space was also introduced that year, a
popular social network that dominated the traffic and even surpassed Google in
traffic in 2006. First platform to feature profile customization for users. In
the year 2004 a social network site Facebook launched, which made social media
more remarkable and dynamic. Facebook is still most popular social network
site. Face book was created for Harvard. Today 1 out of every 13 people globally  on facebook. Half of them are looged in on
any given day. While facebook started out as a Harvard only social network, it
quickly expanded to other school, then to high schools, businesses and
eventually everyone. 2005 has also a great feast for social media. The popular
Youtube was ready for its users. As the first major video hosting and sharing
site, users can upload videos up to 10 minutes long and share them through
Youtube or by embedding them on other websites, social networks and blogs. Twitter
launched in 2006 which is also still another popular site to express and interact.
Via Twitter, Micro blogging builds to over 200 million. Half of them are active
on any given day. Slide Share also launched. Today over 60 million users view
online presentations. 2007, year is memorable in making connection between
mobile phone and social media. It was the year of Mobile Apps Revolutionize Communication.
The mobile OS (iphone iOS and Android ) can be largely credited for the rise of
popularity of real time updates, prior to this, mobile browser were clunky at
best, and virtually unusable at worst. Tumbir launched this year also that was
a cross between microblogging and a life streaming application. Tumbir welcomed
75,000 converts to its service on launch. Friendfeed launched. With the
popularity of social networks, Friendfeed simplified active social media guru
by integrating user’s online activates into one place. In 2008 Viral Video gave
wake up call to the power of social media. Video of burger king employed
bathing in sink sparked awareness. Orkut was
a social networking website
owned and operated by Google. The service was designed to help users meet new and old
friends and maintain existing relationships. The website was named after its
creator, Google employee Orkut Büyükkökten.

 

 WhatsApp, was incorporated in 2009 by Brian Acton and Jan Koum, both former employees
of Yahoo!. WhatsApp Messenger is a cross-platform instant messaging
application that allows iPhone, BlackBerry, Android, Windows Phone and Nokia
smartphone users to exchange text, image, video and audio messages for free. Groupon was also made a debut that year. 2010 confirms
that social media is not a trend. Facebook launched Open Graph QR Codes Gain
Marketing popularity Smart phones outsell computers. Year 2011 has brought a
new dynamic feature. Social media becomes Social business. Social media fast
forwards news access and community action. Google introduces Google+ Social
media breaks demographics braiers. 79% 
to 84% of all age demographics (15+) participate. 2012, NFC ushers in
social convergence.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

new social networking sites Facebook
& Orkut.com change total concept of Social Network in the history of Social
media .

 

Social Networking such
as Facebook ,Orkut, Myspace,Flicker and Youtube are sites where users apply for
membership and maintain their personal profile information in a centrally
organized database .Each network member controls access to their profile by
accepting or deleting request from other network members to be “friend “. By
expanding and developing their networks of friend s, social networking members
are able to maintain online relationship for work, study, special interests
leisure- related purposes.

 

 

 

 

IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA:

Social
networks like Facebook and Twitter have always encouraged their subscribers to
come up with an online persona. They then build a personal network of friends
that connects to an open worldwide community (Griffith & Tengnah, 2009).
Information is now shared freely between the two. These parties can communicate
either publicly (writing on ‘walls’) or via the more discrete personal
messages.

Apart
from connecting to a network of friends, a subscriber can join community groups
with a specific interest. Here, the subscribers discuss different issues
touching on that interest. More often than not, events are created where
physical meetings are arranged. Briggs found out that an average Facebook user
is connected to around 80 community groups (Griffith , 2009). Most
of these groups encourage the subscribers to give suggestions on how they
should be run and to engage in debates. They also provide a social forum for
members to interact amongst each other and with the leaders of the groups.

There
are other social sites like YouTube that give users a platform to upload and
share videos. Here, users post videos of themselves for other users to view.
YouTube has been a great platform for musicians and film producers as their
fans can easily access their music videos. Other social sites like MySpace have
also given users the platform to post videos on their profiles. Such sites
enable easy access to a variety of videos like music, sports, documentaries,
and movies.

Social
media has lessened the use verbal communication and increased the use of online
messaging. People nowadays can have ‘phone conversations’ over their computers.
This has been enabled by the development of social sites such as Skype. Here,
people that are connected will communicate by word of mouth. This is unlike
Facebook and Twitter where the mode of communication is by writing.

Most
of the social sites have now incorporated webcams for their subscribers.
Webcams enables ‘friends’ to have a one on one conversation while at the same
time watching each other. This communication is more private and very effective
as subscribers get to see each other. There has really been an increase in
popularity in webcam conversations.

Facebook,
Twitter, and Skype are popular social media platforms millions utilize daily.
It is extremely rare to come across anyone in today’s society who does not have
an account on one of these platforms. Social media is not only people used by
people but by businesses and organizations, as well. Most sites that I visit
online has a link to their Facebook page,

Qualman,
2009 states: “Social media touches nearly every facet of our
personal and business lives. In business, it is not just for Marketing and
Public Relations department. Rather it is imperative for social media to be a
part of the company’s overall strategy. Social media is living and breathing
and it touches every part of a company from Customer Service to frontline
sales, even Human Resources and Information Technology.” (p.13)

With
the rising growth of social media networking, businesses are turning to it as a
means of advertisement. It allows businesses and organizations to reach
millions of users on a platform they are using on a daily basis. Businesses and
organizations reach numerous users on Facebook by creating pages and offering
promotions and discounts to get fans. If there is someone on your page who is a
fan of their page, your friends can share post that are displayed in your
newsfeeds. This allows the business to reach the fan and the friends of the
fans.

It
is important to realize that as social media evolves the realm of communication
changes. The technological advances added to social media changes the way we
communicate with people on daily basis. It has made communication quicker and
more efficient. Social media sites like Facebook send daily reminder of friend
birthdays. Instead of picking up the phone and traditionally wishing someone
birthday greetings, you can simply type your birthday greeting on their page.  

Almost
everyone young and old use social media in some fashion. Twitter is popular
social platform for celebrities. I often watch the news and there is a story of
what some celebrity tweeted to their fans or other celebrities. The use of
social media and networking has elevated communication to a higher platform. It
has helped social organization, businesses, churches and individuals reach
audiences in which they could not reach before. It has even be used in politics
with President Obama using twitter to keep Americans posted on what is
happening in the government.

The
negative effects of social media on communication are the effect it can have on
kids through cyber bullying and unwanted exposure. Younger people are using
mass communication without the without realizing the consequences. (Wallis,
2012). There has been instances where young folks have committed suicide as the
result of negative things that have been posted about them on the internet,
Parental controls are available to ensure website are access that are
inappropriate for certain age groups but they cannot protect young folks from
what is being posted by their peers. Social media and networking is often used
as an outlet and peers can post things that are potentially hurting to others.

Boyd
and Nelson (2006) reported that the top ten social
networking sites developed with the passage of time, and its number of users
increases from 46.8 million to 68.8 million. This rating reveals the important
information about how new generation interacts with each other. Talking about
law and Jurisdiction it is international law that one must be 18 years old
minimum to use social networking websites but unfortunately, Lenhart and Madden
(2007) calculated huge amount underage users which must be violated. According
to Linhart and Madden (2007) calculation it has been analyzed that 41% 12-13
years old and 61% 14-17 years old users in social networking websites.

 

Social
networking helps people in online communities and enhance communication. Social
networking has been used in many ways in this era as it is the era of
technology. Youth is learning fast on social media and using it for
constructive purpose also. One can educate people about the society, good and
bad, values, ethics and culture, if its use is preceded in a positive way.
Sometimes, Students use these social media tools in their studies also. They
talk about their lectures, subjects or a single topic of their syllabus with
their campus community groups.

Many
of teens, youth but also adults also use it. Many of them don’t know how to use
it safe. Over the past few years, social media networks have become one of the
most popular applications on the internet. Social networking sites attracts
youth, teens specially students towards them. While chatting and talking to
friends, students forget about the time. Somehow, it is wastage of time, by
saving that time students can learn more by studying. For youth and students,
it is not much beneficial as students who use social media get so much addicted
to it and they forget about their other activities and responsibilities. Too
much use of social media websites is risky for the students as they lose their
personal data and information, they upload on the websites. Not only on
internet but also when students meet each other in their educational
institutes, they keep discussing about their activities and data uploaded by
them and their friends.

With
the emergence and growth of social media there are benefits and disadvantages
to the way communication is impacted. The real question is whether the benefits
surpassed the disadvantages. I believe that the benefits of social media are
helpful to the world and we communicate. As with anything, there will be
disadvantages and it will be used to do things that it was not originally
intended.

Inmates
in prison have access to social media and networking allowing them to stay
connected to what is happening in the outside world. The television is slowly
becoming obsolete with Facebook, Twitter and other sites providing news at
faster rates then the local news at 9. pm. The news station and newspaper also
have Facebook and Twitter accounts that provide new stories, as they are
unfolding.

The
ability to access social platforms via computers, tablets, and cellphones
allows you access at all times throughout the day. The convenience and ease of
access leads to social media and network addictions. Anyone who has a Facebook,
Twitter or Instagram account have seen the user who is logged in all the time.
There are some users who post everything they are doing throughout the day,
which can be dangerous.

Facebook
also lets you to make groups, have applications and have as many friends as you
want – this assists you with getting in touch with people who like what you
like, play games online, and make additional friends. One thing it lacks in is
security from pedophiles. There is no ‘report button’ to report users, even if
they are irritating you. It also has a social bookmarking websites, allowing
you to keep your favorite websites in one place, as well as all your friends.
Another wonderful idea only integrated by Facebook is the friend finder. It
permits you to find friends in an instant, allowing you to connect to friends.

If
you page is not private and can only be accessed by your friends, when you post
your everyday activities it allows users to know your location and what you are
doing. If you post that you will be going on vacation for the next couple of
days, it lets potential burglars know that you are not at home and can lead to
your home being broken into.

There
is no general rulebook on the do’s and don’ts on how to effectively use social
media without making yourself vulnerable. Privacy has been become a rising
issue in social media and networking with the addition of locations and gps
tracking. Recently, Facebook has made it easier to understand and adjust your
privacy settings but it is up to the user to ensure their privacy is protected.

The
best way to protect your privacy is to be mindful of what you post and who can
access and view what you are posting. I suggest not posting anything on the
social media and networking sites that you do not want broadcasting to
everyone. Although you believe your family and friends are viewing what you are
posting, anyone can access it.

Communication
has improved greatly by emerges and continual growth of social media. Everyone
from churches to schools use it to communicate with users. Social media has
evolved communication to new heights. The ease of access and growth makes it
very beneficial to everyone from pastors to politicians. As social media
evolves, communication will improve and continue to soar to new heights. The
positive impact on communication definitely overcomes the negative and makes it
very beneficial.

EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON EDUCATION

 Social media has equal positive or negative
aspects but many students are using these sites on a regular basis. Over the
years many studies have been conducted over the impact of social media on
academic performance of students and it demonstrates a strong relationship
between the two variables

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