Name: Eugene Lee Xin Hong
Student No. S10167401
Date of submission: 21 Jan 2017
to the protocol.
FIPIO also known as the Factory Instrumentation Protocol IO,
is a fieldbus protocol designed to provide links between levels zero (Example.
Sensors / actuators levels) and levels one (Controller level) in an automation
system. The levels are found in the automation industry which is based on a five-layer
hierarchical architecture to increase performance, and lower software maintenance
cost. The protocol is created with the intention of being able to be used with
all types of automation, even the centralized, the synchronous and the
The FIP is easy to learn compared to other protocols. It uses
the international standards to its fullest potential, such as the MMS (Manufacturing
of the protocol.
The FIP was started with a group managed by the Science and
Technology Department of the Ministry for industry and Research in France. The group
worked on the FIP specification during the years 1983-1985. At the start, the
FIP was made to be committed to real-time requirements (The amount of time in
which an operation must be completed) and the supervision and instrumentation
The WorldFIP standardization is EN 50170 and IEC 61158.
Any FIP network consist of a 3-layer model compared with
the OSI 7-layer model.
The three layers of the FIP are:
The physical Layer
The Data Link Layer
Firstly, at the physical layer the FIP uses the RS-485 cable and its
The RS-485 commonly also use
shielded twisted pair or optical fiber as its medium.
FIP uses a bus topology. It means that all the device is attached to the same
Advantages of a bus topology:
Less cabling than star and mesh topology
of a bus topology:
Difficult to add new devices
Signal reflection at the taps cause degradation
and functionality rely on the bus cable to work.
the Data-Link layer uses the Medium Access Method(MAC) with Master/slave bus
arbitrator regulates the scheduling of all buffer transfer.
data link layer also supports two types of transmission services.
two types being: Exchange of identified Variables and Message transfers.
of identified variables
support two types of variables; real-time data and non-time critical data.
time variables can be periodic or non-periodic. It can also transfer
asynchronous messages between nodes.
exchange of messages can be either Unacknowledged aperiodic message broadcasting
or Acknowledged aperiodic message broadcasting.
transmission technique of FIP is through the Medium (Bus topology). The FIP has
two distinct addressing spaces, and messages addressing space.
are two ways in the FIP to exchange messages one is either by point-to-point(ptp)
or multi-point. A single strand of message transferred contains the address of
the sender and the receiver. There are 24 bit that are used to code the
addresses of the messages. A total pf 2^24 =16777216 address for the messages
are in the FIP. The addressing scheme is based on addressing of Entities.
Entity address contains the address of the segment as well as the node.
the application layer it allows access to variables through the MPS (Manufacturing
Periodic/Aperiodic Services) interface and messages via the sub-MMS (Manufacturing
Messaging Services) interface with a maximum message size of 64 Kbytes.
Does the protocol work?
A WorldFIP network is usually made up of stations or nodes which
are attached by connectors over the network bus. The two types of nodes in the
WorldFIP are the Bus Arbitrating node and the producer//consumer node.
Firstly, the Bus Arbitrating node is the one controlling
the accessibility to the transmission medium (BUS). It also controls which node
may transmit at any specific time. The Bus arbitrator node also has a table to
scan the variables at specific time intervals. The table is called the Bus
Other than the Bus Arbitrating node the rest is either
producer/consumer node or both at the same time.
The bus arbitrator must have a scanning table (Bus arbitrator
table) to list the periodic variables exit which need to be circulated or
scanned along the bus at equal time intervals. The bus arbitrator must also
take into account of the transfer time or the length of each variable data
packet in order to estimate the required transmission time.
Within the Bus Arbitrator table, it is made up of small and
big scanning cycles which are called microcycles and macrocycles respectively.
The microcycle determines the maximum rate which the bus arbitrator performs a
set of scans (periodic and non-periodic). The macrocycle corresponds to a
comparison of specific number of elementary cycles.
Arbitrator periodic variable scanning mechanism.
The priority of the Bus Arbitrator is to transmit the
question frame ID_Dat over the bus. The frame contains the identifier of any
specific periodic variable. The data link layer of all the stations within this
bus will record this frame, but only one will correspond to the producer of the
variable and the other nodes know that they need the value of the variable from
Reduced cabling due to bus topology
Easy maintenance and modification
Easy to learn
Simplification of point-to-point wiring between
Accessibility to all variables
Throughout the world the FIP has been used in different
industries a few are.
Energy Industry: Power plants, Melaka Power Plant
Building Automation: Barcelona Hospital
Food Industry: Coca Cola
Some of them might be used to welding robots, control of
power converter, cryogenic controls, radio frequency and radiological monitors.
the decades once profibus has come into the market the production and
development of the FIP has ceased.