-Age & Gender- and
Leadership Styles: Impact of Age and Gender on Leadership Styles of Managers 2
Key Words. 2
Research Area: 2
Research Type: 2
Problem Statement: 2
Age and Leadership: 2
Gender and Leadership: 3
Objectives of the Research: 3
Research Question: 4
Leadership Styles Chosen for the
Reasons for choosing the above
Literature Review: 4
Theoretical Framework: 6
Dependent Variables Independent
Description of Independent
Chronological Age. 6
Biological Age. 7
Psychological Age. 7
Hypothesis One. 7
Hypothesis Two. 7
Hypothesis Three. 7
Limitations of the Study. 7
-Age & Gender- and Leadership Styles: Impact of Age and
Gender on Leadership Styles of Managers
of this study is to investigate the different leadership styles and the
influence of age and gender on the leadership styles of the managers of different
banks in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The study concentrated on the three interesting
leadership styles that are at the top, bottom and the middle of the leadership
authority hierarchy, namely the autocratic, democratic and the laissez-faire
leadership styles. The study reveals that the demographic leadership style is
the dominant one and age and gender have their own influence on the managers’
leadership styles. The study also reveals that with increase in age relatively
lesser authority is exhibited by the workers and gender too is found to
influence the leadership styles of the managers.
Age, Leadership, Gender, Positive Affect, Effective
Leader, Gender Roles, Negative Affect, Performance, Work Life
Research Area: Marketing
No research has been conducted before on the
relation between the employee’s leadership behavior and these two variables
especially considering the Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-fair leadership
styles in MCB Bank located in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. That’s why this study plans
to investigate and explore this relationship; the research problem is defined
explore the effect of Age & Gender on Leadership Styles of workers in the
MCB Bank, located in Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
The leader is an extraordinary person who Inspires,
and has a long lasting effect of his achievements and success on the people at workplace.
There’s a concept of “Natural Born Leader”, the people who born with the
leadership qualities. The hurdles to enter the business world are less for such
persons because of their extraordinary skills of influencing their colleagues
by their work. (Holley, 2015).
Does the age affect Leadership? Yes, it does in many
ways. It’s a common impression that old people cannot do what youngsters can
do. For example, the old people cannot cope with the technology but the
youngsters can. There’s another concept that the wisdom comes with the age.
There are many things that the young ones can’t do but the old people can. For
example, teenagers cannot give advices in contrast to them, the old ones can. (Kotur & Anbazhagan, The Influence of Age and
Gender on the Leadership Styles, 2014).
But in the modern era, the age really does not
matter, what actually matters is the ability to compete. In the past few
decades, there have been numerous leaders who have failed as well as succeeded
at every age. The leader should be passionate, talented and committed to the work.
Despite the fact that women’s ratio is increasing in
the business sector, within the past few decades women are discriminated in
higher levels of organizations. Some researches show that the men are more
effective and efficient leaders than women. But some other researches proved
opposite that there are some organizations that require female leaders, and
take advantage of their “feminine” leadership qualities. (Paustian, Underdahl, Walker, & Woehr, 2014)
Women are no doubt better leaders because they are
hardworking and more likely to adapt dramatic and participative styles, and men
are more likely to emphasis on power and control.
Here, these are some discrepancies in -age &
gender- that affect the leadership behavior of employees in various ways. Many
researchers have thoroughly studied the influence of the age and gender on
leadership behavior of employees. Mature leaders are more likely to understand
their co-workers better and that helps them in dealing with their co-workers in
a confident and efficient way. Leadership is also related to the understanding
the fellow men and fulfilling the tasks altogether. Even due to gender also,
there is a remarkable difference in the leadership behaviors of people in an
organization. (Kotur & S., The Influence of Age and Gender on
the Leadership Styles)
The purpose of this study is to explore the
influence of age and gender on leadership behavior of employees – especially on
the workers in MCB Bank located in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Various researches on
leadership have studied the impact of leader’s age and gender on his followers’
performances. But the purpose of this study is to inspect the impact of the
variables –age and gender- on the managers’ leadership style. (Myatt)
Objectives of the Research:
The main objectives of this research are:
purpose is to explore the differences between Autocratic, Democratic and
Laissez-fair Leadership Styles.
study the influence of Age and Gender on the leadership styles of managers in Different
Banks of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
Age & Gender affect the Leadership behavior of the workers in Different
Banks of Bahawalpur, Pakistan?
Leadership Styles Chosen for the Study
For this study, only three leadership styles are
chosen, these are;
for choosing the above styles
The reasons for choosing only the above three
leadership styles for this research are;
only these three styles is easy and interesting because utilizing the authority
of the Leaders in Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-fair fall at all the top,
middle and lower management of the organizations.
other Leadership styles than above three styles are transactional and
transformational leadership but these are not chosen for this research because;
they have already been studied broadly by various researchers before.
some studies have claimed that Pakistan is a democratic country so, to test
this percept, the democratic style has been chosen for this research.
research to test all the leadership styles is costly and is not in affordable range
of researcher; this is also the reason to keep the research only to three
who leads a group of people towards a common goal, is knows as a leader
(Andrew, 2009). The leader influences his group members to accomplish the
specified objectives and the way in which the leader handles his followers is
known as leadership style (Sheikh, 2001). According to Adeyemi and Brlarinwa
(2013) leadership is “the art or process of influencing people so that they
will strive willingly towards the achievement of objects”. Yukl (2004) point is
that, leadership is an act of influencing subordinates to accomplish
organizational goals through authority.
theories of leadership classify leadership in different ways. Based on the use
of authority, leadership is classified into three types as autocratic,
democratic and laissez faire leadership styles (Adeyemi, 2004). Maximum
authority is exhibited in the autocratic leadership style and this leader
always wants to command, order his followers to comply. This leader orders but
will not hear to his followers (Bass, 1990).
other hand, in democratic leadership style the leader gives equal priority to
each individual under him and feels himself/herself as an important member of
the organization (Adeyemi, 2007). In laissez-faire leadership style the leader
leaves the subordinate free to make decision and exercise powers. The leader
has least role and participation in the decisions made by his group members in
the organization (Ogunsanwo, 2000). These three styles – autocratic,
democratic, and laissez-faire (free-rein) – has their own merits and
limitations too and none of these could be universally applied. Depending on
the situation and the followers – the leader has to choose his leadership style
in order to be effective (Bass, 1990).
(1988) has regarded age as one of the factors that determine the leadership
style. Apart from the professional and academic knowledge, it is commonly
believed that age and experience might play important roles in leadership
behaviors. In many cultures, the myth is that as people get older they become
wiser due to more exposure and experience. For example in African culture,
experience is considered as a function of age and therefore older peoples are
given priority for leadership positions in different organizations (Ahiazu,
possible that males and females might lead from different perspectives. Winter,
Neal and Waner (2001) claim that “Current psychological research on leadership
and team interaction suggests that men and women exhibit different leadership
styles and interpersonal communication styles in a variety of small-group
situations from student problem- solving situations to industry and community
situations”. According to Lantz “women executives are much more likely than
males to be a department head or to fill some other staff position, whereas men
are much more likely to be a chief executive officer (CEO), chief operating
officer (COO), president, or vice president” (Lantz, 2008). Babcock (2008)
states that “Rather than intentional acts of bias, second-generation gender
biases reflect the continuing dominance of traditionally masculine values in
the workplace”. According to common perception, women are more emotional and
less competitive than men. For example, some authors have written that “Women
are significantly more risk averse, tend to be less overconfident and behave
less competitively oriented” (Beckman and Menkhoff, 2008).
effectiveness of the leaders more or less dictated the fate of the hotels (Li,
Tse, & Xie, 2007). The bank managers? demographic characteristics including
age influenced the business success. Mirini, Narjo and Kumbhar (2003) explored
the needed leadership competencies.
studies (Van Engen and Willemsen, 2004)) have shown mixed empirical evidence
for gender influence on the leadership styles.
it was considered very important to investigate the influence of age and gender
on the leadership styles of the workers and therefore the study was conducted.
Leadership, Age, Gender, Behavior of managers
Dependent Variables Independent
Behavior of Managers
Description of Independent Variables:
Leadership is a process in which
leader motivates the group of employees to work and fulfill their goals. (Ward,
Chronological age is defined as the
number of years a person has lived.
Biological age is defined as a
description of an individual’s development based on biomarkers.
Psychological age is defined as a
subjective description of one’s experience using non-physical features. (Kowalczyk)
Gender is defined as a personal
conception of oneself as male or female (or rarely, both or neither). (Ghosh, 2015)
mainly based on the survey conducted on the workers in the different Banks of
Bahawalpur. Based on the data collected from the workers, the hypotheses (given
later) in this research were tested using suitable statistical tabulations and
H1 – There is no significant difference in the
number of employees with their inherent leadership styles.
H2 – There is no significant difference between Male
and Female employees in terms of Leadership styles.
H3 – There is no significant variance among
respondent age groups in terms of Leadership styles
Limitations of the Study
the limitations of this research study are:
all the workers in the firm were studied
some of the select banks was examined
the study is confined to a smaller town
d) Only the three and not all leadership
styles were examined. Due to these reasons the findings may not be the general
variables chosen for this study – Age and Gender – indeed have their respective
influence on the leadership styles of the workers. The study indicates that the
democratic leadership style is dominant among the workers and with increasing
age, the workers tend to exhibit lesser authority and the female employees are
more autocratic in nature.
S. (2015, March 16). Gender Identity . (L. M. Windle, Editor)
Retrieved January 19, 2018, from Medscape:
(2015, August 17). Is Age A Factor In Leadership? Retrieved January
16, 2018, from Linkedin:
Kotur, B. R.,
& Anbazhagan, S. (2014, January). The Influence of Age and Gender on the
Leadership Styles. Journal of Business and Management, 16(1), 30-36.
Kotur, B. R.,
& S. A. (n.d.). The Influence of Age and Gender on the Leadership Styles.
Journal of Business and Management, 16, 30-36.
(n.d.). Defining Age with Different Perspectives: Definitions &
Examples. Retrieved January 19, 2018, from Study.com:
(n.d.). LEADERSHIP & AGE. Retrieved January 19, 2018, from
N2Growth Hub: http://hub.n2growth.com/do-you-know-what-you-dont-know/
C., Underdahl, Walker, L. S., & Woehr, D. J. (2014). Gender and
Perceptions of Leadership Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis of Contexual
Moderators. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 1129 –1145.
(2017, July 17). Leadership Definition. Retrieved January 18, 2018,
from the balance: https://www.thebalance.com/leadership-definition-2948275
J. DuBrin (2009): Leadership: New York, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company
A.G. (2001). “Leadership Styles as Viewed by Secondary School Head Teachers
of Lahore City”, Institute of Leadership and Management, Lahore, Affiliated
with Hamdard University, Karachi Pakistan. Master thesis in education Studies
of Management and Organization, 19(1), 6-27.
T.O., Bolarinwa,R. (2013). Principals? Leadership Styles and Student Academic
Performance in Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. International
Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 2(1),
G. (2004). Leadership in Organizations, 5 Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
T. O (2004). Educational administration: An Introduction. Lagos: Atlantic
Associated Publishers. p.71-86.
B.M. (1990). Handbook of leadership: Theory, research, & managerial
applications, Third edition. New York: Free Press
T.O. (2007): Research Methods and Theses Writing in Educational Studies.
Lagos: New Haven Publishers
O. A. (2000). Modern Principles and Techniques of Management Ibadan: External
Studies Program, Department of Educational Management University of Ibadan.
B.M. (1990). Handbook of leadership: Theory, research, & managerial
applications, Third edition. New York: Free Press.
(1988). Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness and
Appointment of a Committee Chairperson. Dissertation Abstracts International,
Volume: 50-07, Section: B, page: 2842
A. I. (1989). The “Theory A” system of work organization for the
modern African workplace. International Studies of Management and
Organization, 19(1), 6-27.
J, Neal. J, and Waner. K (2001), “How male, female, and mixed-gender groups
regard interaction and leadership differences in the business communication
course,” Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 43–58.
P (2008), “Gender and leadership in healthcare administration: 21st century
progress and challenges,” Journal of Healthcare Management, Vol. 53, No. 5,
L (2008), “What happens when women don?t ask?” Negotiation, Vol. 11, No. 96,
D and Menkhoff. L (2008), “Will women be women? Analyzing the gender
difference among financial experts,” Kyklos, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 364–384.
L., Tse, E., C.Y., & Xie, L. (2007). Hotel general manager profile in
China: A case of Guangdong Province. International Journal of Contemporary
Hospitality Management, 19(4), 263-274.
Z.D., Narejo, M.A., & Kumbhar, M.I. (2003).Essential leadership
competencies needed in agricultural occupations as identified by agricultural
leaders in district Hyderabad, Sindh. Pakistan Journal of Applied Sciences,
Vugt. M (2006), “Evolutionary origins of leadership and followership,”
Personality& Social Psychology Review, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 354–371.