Cloning, with another, ‘lesser’, organism in order to produce

Cloning, by definition, is the technique of producing a genetically identical duplicate of an organism. There are two types of cloning: reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. Cloning is done by a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in which the nucleus of an unfertilized ovum (or egg) is replaced with the nucleus of a tissue cell from the organism that is being cloned.  Because therapeutic cloning is used positively to help treat diseases such as paralysis, it is, in general, easier for people to get on board with therapeutic cloning rather than reproductive cloning.  While there is some positives to reproductive cloning (i.e. it could allow parents with no eggs and sperm create genetically related children or it could help same-sex couples have children without the need for donor sperm or eggs), there are also very profound negatives to reproductive cloning including, but not limited to, the fact that it would diminish the idea of uniqueness, it is considered unethical and not within “god’s wishes”, and, most importantly, it is considered to be extremely unsafe as only 5% or less clonings of mammals have been successful.A GMO is a “genetically modified organism.” Organisms are genetically modified through a process called transformation in which the genes that code for the desired trait are extracted from the DNA of one species and, in turn, are artificially forced into the genes of another species. Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together. Genetic engineering can also be seen as an artificial variety of selective breeding in which the preferred characteristics of an organism are shared with another, ‘lesser’, organism in order to produce an almost “invincible” species. Genetic modification can be seen both positively and negatively as it has both pros and cons. Some positives regarding genetic modification are the better taste and growth rate it can give to food, the prolonging of shelf-life of food, and its ability to enhance positive traits and suppress negative ones. A few negatives to genetic modification are its potential to suppress nutritional value in foods, its potential to introduce many harmful bacterium, and its potential absorption of genetic diversity.