CHRONIC being around chemicals and dust particles at work,

DISEASE                                             2


obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) describes ongoing lung obstruction. Some
diseases that are under COPD include emphysema, asthma, and chronic bronchitis.
These diseases are from damaged air cells causing air to not flow easily
through the lungs. This condition is illustrated by the patient loosing his or
her breath and coughing so much because it is very difficult for him/her to
breath. Symptoms of COPD include shortness of breath and coughing robustly. COPD
is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. ( Jørgen Vestbo, J. (2013,
February 15)

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most important risk factor for COPD is smoking cigarettes. Smoking causes the
lungs to become swollen, causing less oxygen to reach the lungs and difficulty
for the patient to breath. The use of pipes, cigar, and ant tobacco products is
a risk factor for COPD since it will cause the lungs to become inflamed. Other
risk factors are being around chemicals and dust particles at work, lung
infections that are recurrent, and low weight at birth. The patient should be
protected at the workplace if he/she works outside with these toxic particles
by wearing a mask over their face.

is described as chronic inflammation of the lung tissues and airways. Since the
inflammation causes decreased oxygen flow to the tissues (hypoxia), the patient
will experience breathing problems, which causes them to cough and have mucus
production. Symptoms from the different lung diseases include barrel chest,
cyanosis, and clubbing. (Mosenifar, Z. 2014, October 30). There is no cure to




disease since the inflamed lungs
cannot be reversed. Surgery can be done if the breathing issue is extreme and
it is causing complications by removing the damaged air cells. If the person
continues to be near these irritants, they will become fatigue and it can be
very dangerous. Since they are working so hard to breath and get oxygen in
their lungs, they might one day be unable to get oxygen, which will result in

There are many different classes of
medications are used to alleviate the symptoms, but they have not been proven
to reduce the long-term weakening of the lungs functions. To alleviate the symptoms,
the patients may be given beta-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics,
corticosteroids, or methylxanthines. (NHLB,2017)The purpose of these
medications is to dilate the bronchioles to relieve bronchospasm, reduce
obstruction in the airways, and to improve the alveolar ventilation. Oxygen
delivery is also considered a prescription therapy that might help the patient
since the patient is lacking oxygen because his/her lungs are inflamed. In
advanced COPD, oxygen delivery for more than 15 hours a day has been shown to
increase the quality of life and endurance.

          When the patient is getting
discharged, the patient and family members should be educated on how to relieve
the symptoms and manage the patients breathing issue. Some ways to educate the
patient and family members is by telling them to avoid drastic weather changes
and extreme temperatures of hot and cold. Another way is by avoiding
environmental and occupational nuisances such as chemicals and dust particles.
(Algusti, A. G. 2017, April).
They should also be taught how to use the respiratory devices and how to
correctly use the oxygen delivery systems.




I have a patient who has history of COPD due to long-term smoking for 25
years. As pharmacotherapy, she has been prescribed albuterol 2.5mg and
ipratropium bromide. During discharge, the patient and family members were
educated on smoking cessation and how to manage her COPD.


is characterized as the patient having a hard time breathing that cannot be
reversed. Once the patient starts smoking, their lungs become inflamed and it
becomes hard for oxygen to reach the lungs. There are several ways to relieve
the symptoms such as oxygen delivery and medications. The patient and family
members should be educated on avoiding irritants and tobacco products that can
deteriorate the patients breathing.