Child Prostitution is a form of sexual abuse involving the commercial sexual exploitation ofchildren in which a child performs sexual acts in exchange for some form of payment. Mostcountries have strict laws surrounding the sexual exploitation of children and so many customersengage in what is known as child sex tourism, travelling to foreign countries to evade the lawswithin their home country. Technology has also allowed children to be prostituted over theinternet, increasing the rates of child pornography and human trafficking across the globe. Childprostitution is rarely a personal choice and is generally a form of organized crime run by anindividual pimp or, more commonly, by a large-scale sex ring. Child prostitution has receivedlittle attention, in INDIA or elsewhere, until the past decade, and there is still a paucity ofresearch. Significant barriers to systematic research and understanding of the issues are theinvisibility of under-age prostitutes, a problem defining what constitutes under-age prostitution,and the lack of services for the children affected. Workers in services for youth at risk are awareof significant and increasing numbers of young people selling sex, commonly for survival, andresearch with adult sex workers indicates that significant proportions commence sex work aschildren. Internationally there appear to be few services assisting under-age prostitutes orworking specifically to reduce this form of child abuse.IntroductionChild Prostitution designates the use of children for sexual activities in exchange forremuneration or another form of retribution (gift, food, clothes, etc). This activity is includedunder the umbrella term of Sexual Exploitation 1 . Child Prostitution usually manifests in the formof sex trafficking, in which a child is kidnapped or duped into becoming involved in the sextrade, or “survival sex”, in which the child engages in sexual activities to procure basic essentialssuch as food and shelter. Prostitution of children is commonly associated with childpornography, and they often overlap. Some people travel to foreign countries to engage in childsex tourism. Research suggests that there may be as many as 10 million children involved inprostitution worldwide. The problem is most severe in South America and Asia, but prostitutionof children exists globally, in undeveloped countries as well as developed. Most of the childreninvolved with prostitution are girls, despite an increase in the number of young boys in the trade.The United Nations has declared the prostitution of children to be illegal under international law,and various campaigns and organizations have been created to protest its existence.1 Audrey Gigon, sexual abuse of children,(Oct. 05,2011),https://www.humanium.org/en/sexual-abuse- children/1IV14″Most of the victimized children who face prostitution are vulnerable children who are exploited.Many predators target runaways, sexual assault victims, and children who have been harshlyneglected by their biological parents. Not only have they faced traumatic violence that affectstheir physical being, but become intertwined into the violent life of Prostitution.” – U.S. DeputyAttorney General James Cole.These children work on the streets or in establishments such as brothels, clubs, massage parlous,bars, hotels, or restaurants. Both boys as well as girls are driven to prostitution. For example, inPakistan, more than 95% of truckers engage in sexual activities with young boys. This practice isjustified by the fact that these drivers live, on average, more than 21 days away from home andsee these activities as the principal distraction during their off time.Thailand has a long history of being linked with prostitution and trafficking; while the country’sproblems are not necessarily the most acute, it is often perceived as having particularly severeproblems. As early as the 1920s, the League of Nations was investigating accounts ofinternational involvement in the Thai sex industry. In 1933, the League of Nations published areport on the trafficking of women and children in the East, claiming that Thai, Chinese, andRussia women were selling sex in Thai brothels and 40% 0f these women were under the age oftwenty. Although fears about women trafficked as prostitution and “mail-order brides” continuedto surface in the 1970s, anxiety over child trafficking began to receive particular attention the1990s when the issue of the commercial sexual exploitation of children became a majorinternational concern. In the 1990s, campaigns by the media and non-governmentalorganizations (NGOs) claimed that thousands of Western men were traveling overseas in orderto have sex with children. Lurid stories appeared in national and international newspapers withheadlines such as “Disneyland for Pedophiles,” “Pedophiles find paradise on a white beach inThailand,” or “Voyage to a life of shattered dreams.” These articles would usually tell the heart-wrenching stories of a Southeast Asian girl who was either cruelly duped or sold by herimpoverished and greedy parents into a life of prostitution. She would be taken to a brothel,forced to have sex with up to twenty clients a night, usually foreigners, and then be rescued by acharity or journalist, only to discover that she was HIV-positive and had a limited time to live.2 Case- State of Tennessee vs. Cyntoia Brown; Case Highlights How Child Sex TraffickingVictims Are Prosecuted.Twenty-nine- year-old Cyntoia Brown has been locked up in a Tennessee prison for 13 years,after she was convicted of first-degree murder and aggravated robbery in the killing of a manwho hired her as a prostitute when she was 16. At, trial brown’s lawyers argued she was runawaywho was raped, abused and forced into prostitution by a man known as “Kut throat.”She will beeligible for parole after she turns 69. Brown’s case re-entered the spotlight this month after agroup of celebrities including Kim Kardashian West, Rihanna and Snoop Dogg posted their2 Samantha Raphelson, Cyntoia Brown case Highlights, (Dec 01, 2017, 3:51 PM),https://www.npr.org/2017/12/01/567789605/cyntoia-brown- case-highlights- how-child- sex-trafficking- victims-are-prosecuted1IV14support on social media with the hashta, #FreeCyntoiaBrown. An online petition urgingTennessee’s governor to consider clemency for Brown has garnered more than 4,000 signatures.Renewed attention on Brown’s case is shining a light on how the criminal justice system treatschild victims of sex trafficking who commit crimes. Each year, more than 1,000 children arearrested for prostitution in the U.S., according to the bureau of Justice Statistics. Advocates saythat in many cases those children are the true victims, and argue Brown’s case should bereconsidered under new “safe harbor” laws that protect trafficked minors from criminal charges.Filmmaker Dab Birman, who produced a 2011 PBS documentary about Brown’s case, says ifBrown were arrested today, her case would have a different outcome than it did in 2004. “IfCyntoia Brown were arrested today, she would not be charged as a prostitute. She would beconsidered a young girl who’s involved in sex trafficking,” he tells Here ; Now’s Robin Young.”That means that a young girl who in past years might have might have been considered aprostitute, it isn’t so because they’re not making that choice, and the laws are reflecting this.”There is a Question that ‘Why choose children instead of Adults?It is easier to abuse a child than adults. Sexual exploiters utilize the docility of children becausethey are less able to defend themselves. This deviant attitude is often caused by the feeling ofsexual and economic power, by the desire for new experiences, or by the feeling of impunityrelated to anonymity. Moreover, in certain cultures, myths and prejudices often justify the searchfor sexual relations with children. In Asia for example, some men are persuaded that the fact ofhaving sexual relations with very young virgin girls prevents them from contracting HIV/AIDS,as well as curing this illness. Most men believe also that having sexual relations with a virginincreases their virility, as well as bringing longevity and success in business.3 In the case of Prajwala vs. Union of India ; Ors.INDIA is rife with trafficking and exploitation, particularly of women and children, whichinvolves prostitution, pornography and sex-tourism. Traffickers often target women and childrenliving in poverty, as they are vulnerable to exploitation. Of the millions of women and childrentrafficked annually, approximately 25 percent are children. The volume of trafficking in recentyears has increased tremendously accompanied by a steady decrease in the average age ofvictims. Today, it is not unusual to find children as young as nine years being trafficked forsexual exploitation.The immoral Traffic (Preventition) Act 1956, Allowed authorities to conduct read on red lightdistricts and arrest, women working there. After paying a hefty fine, they were released into thesame conditions where they were susceptible to the same people who had exploited them3 Prajwala Vs. Union of India ; Ors, (2004) Writ Petition (C) No.56 (India).1IV14previously. No provision was made for their rehabilitation and protection. In, 1996 authoritiesbegan a set of raids in red light areas in Mumbai attempt to combat trafficking and sexualexploitation. These raids still continue. While such raids are meant to curb trafficking and rescue,rehabilitate and restore victims, they have largely failed in their objective due to thegovernment’s inability to offer any meaningful support and protection to victims rescued fromcommercial sexual exploitation. Thus, three-question of the women rescued return to the sexindustry within a year, either voluntarily or by coercion from former employers. This is becausebrothel owners, pimps and traffickers have easy access to victims once they have been ‘rescued’and placed in places of protection.Victims may resist rescue because of their fear or mistrust of police officials who often treatthem harshly and have been known to collude with brothel owners and pimps. Condition inprotection homes for women and children are inadequate. Strict rule and regulations make themfeel imprisoned again and there is a several lack of much-needed medical and mental healthservices. There is little or no follow up.The ITPA, 1956, contains provisions for special courts to be set up by the state and the centralgovernments and for summary trials to be directed by the state governments to ensure speedydisposal of trafficking offences. To date, none of these provisions have been enacted either bythe states or the control central government. This makes the trial process in a trafficking caseneedlessly lengthy resulting in low conviction rates. The Committee on Prostitution, ChildProstitution and Children of Prostitutes and the Plan of Action to combat Trafficking andCommercial Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children, Government of INDIA Report, 1998,and the Government of INDIA report in 1998 and the Kamat Committee of the NationalCommission for Women report in 2000 made recommendations regarding the rehabilitation ofWomen and Children, which were vague and have not been fully implemented. In 2003, theGovernment of Andhra Pradesh created a detailed policy to combat trafficking of Women andChildren for commercial sexual purposes.The petitioner is calling for a ‘victim protection protocol’ with detailed national guidelines withregard to the pre-rescue, rescue and post-rescue stages involved in the rehabilitation of womenand children trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation. A favorable decision by the SupremeCourt will be a big step in addressing a legislative gap in efforts to eliminate trafficking on anational level. Thereby saving many women and children from a life of sexual servitude byproviding them with the protection, assistance and skills they need to start a new life.Causes of Child ProstitutionThe following are the causes of Child Prostitution are indentified by legal scholars as generallyprevalent in the society:Girls as objects of DesireAs girls are seen as meek, loyal and submissive, they are trafficked by ‘placement agencies’ intoworking as servants. Upon maturity, they can then be used as prostitutes, sold again to brothels,while the unknowing family which hired them as a maid buys yet another girl as a servant.Alternatively, they’re also rented out to foreign tourists looking for minor girls. Minor girls are1IV14in huge demand in illegal sex trade in different parts of INDIA and they’re easy targets toexploit. Traffickers also create an illusion that one day; the entire family will follow their sonsand daughters into the city. They aren’t aware of the link between the placement agencies andbrothels. In INDIA society find the value of Son is more than Daughter, simply because theycarry on the family name, aren’t subjected to dowry and are obliged to take care of them in theirold age. Since girls are also seen as weak and only objects of desire, it is clear why most girlvictims of child labour end up in prostitution or smoke kind of sexual slavery. According to aSeptember 2015 report in INDIA Today, girls are “sold openly” in Agra & Patna and auctionedfor their virginity.4 Poor EducationSome children cannot support themselves materially in view of low educational training theyreceived, so they resort to prostitution as their only profession. While the Right to Education act,supplemented by initiatives of both NGOs and government bodies, attempts to drive schoolenrolment, the truth is poor school conditions discourage children from being interested inschool. This is worsened by teachers who have no incentive in teaching in villages, due to theseconditions and low salaries. With a rote learning-based educational system that doesn’t makechildren employable, parents see labour a better proposition. This is why there are 8.33 lakhchildren trapped in child labour in INDIA. This is ripe environment for traffickers to lure parentswith lies about the possibility of better education, domestic work, and a nurturing atmosphere,with just a small sum of money.5 PovertyThe principal cause of prostitution is poverty. Parents often feel obligated to sell their children topimps because their low salary does not allow them to meet the needs of their family. Povertyalso becomes a cause of abandonment. This rejection forces children to leave their familyenvironment to become street children. Vulnerable and in need money, they are the main targetsof operators who promise them work and remuneration. A woman distressed economically, oftenill treated by parents or seduced by boyfriend who later turns out to be a pimps or procurer, andlastly uneducated or with a very low education level seldom social factors which are degrade thestatus of a woman. One such factor is the view of women being a commodity – which ispervasive in popular manifestations of culture in INDIA. The harsh reality is, that women whohave had sexual experiences are considered to be ‘used goods’ or ‘characterless’ and are unlikelyto ever marry. She becomes an impoverished cultural outcast.MoneyProstitution is a very lucrative activity compared to local salaries.4 Lana Osment, Child labour; the effect on child,23-24, (2014)5 Fanny Busuttil, Child Prostitution: the curse affecting every continent, https://www.humanium.org/en/child-prostitution/ (Dec, 12, 2011)1IV14In Kenya, for example, a sexual encounter with a young girl under the age of 16 can cost aroundtwenty Euros. But the price can reach sixty Euros depending on the situation. In comparison, theaverage Kenyan only earns four Euros a day.OrphansEach year, wars, natural catastrophes and the HIV/AIDS epidemic all contribute to the increasein the number of orphans. Being so vulnerable, these children accept any kind of work.Prostitution becomes a way to survive because the activity is extremely profitable compared toother forms of degrading or dangerous work.Fear of AIDSThe fear of HIV/AIDS has increased the demand for virgins and children. Clients mistakenlybelieve that children have fewer chances of contracting the disease. Similarly there is the myththat a man can rid himself of sexually transmitted diseases if he sleeps with a virgin. RecentIndian Government statistics put the number of people infected with HIV 3.5million, indicatingapproximately three out of every 100 Indians are now infected with virus which leads to AIDS.Almost 9 out 10 those people are below 45 years old. Patrons of child prostitutes are willing topay a great deal of money to be a girl’s first client. In the streets, brothels and drinking spotsthese days a lot of female children are being employed to help lure more male customers to theirspots. Places like Amaran by Tetlow Road and some places in Onyeche Street in Oweri have ahigh number of female child prostitutes who are employed only to facilitate their business. Thisis because there is the fear that other older female prostitutes in the same profession could havevarious STDs.6 Child TraffickingNumerous children are kidnapped each year across the world and are integrated into prostitutionnetworks against their will. About 7,000 sex workers cross over from Nepal into INDIA everyyear. 66% of the girls are from families where the annual income is about Rs5 000. They may besold by their parents, deceived with promises of marriage or a lucrative job or kidnapped andsold to brothel owner. Between 40-50% are believed to be fewer than 18, the age of consent inINDIA, some are as young as 9 or 10 years old. Between 2013 and 2014, at least 67,000 childrenin INDIA went missing, of whom 45% were minors trafficked into prostitution. According to theNational Crime Records Bureau, a girl is abducted every eight minutes in INDIA. A US reporton human trafficking states that INDIA is one of the world’s main hubs for child sex trafficking.The number of child rapes in INDIA has also been rising at an alarming rate. The 2013 report ofthe National Crimes Records Bureau reveals there were 48,338 recorded cases of child rape from2001 to 2011. In 2001 there were 2,113 cases recorded, while in 2001 there were 7,112, a rise of336%. The report also revealed that 43% of these rape cases were abducted minor girls. Last year6 Dr. (Mrs) Intezar Khan, Child Trafficking in India; A concern, Jamia Millia Islamia University,documents.gov.in/central/12262.pdf.1IV141,224 cases were reported of minor girls being bought and sold, compared to 809 such cases in2012. West Bengal faces the most of these cases every year. In 2013, it recorded 486 cases,followed by 193 Bihar and 129 in Assam. Many times, hard times hit these fellows as they aredeported to come and continue this profession at home. Some of the female prostitutes comehome to take some younger females to their places either to help them or to make them theirboss’ profession.7 The Rise of the Sex MarketOver the past forty years, the sex industry has been industrialized and diffused by new methodsof communication. The rise and normalization of pornography in particular has contributed to thedevelopment of prostitution.Sex TourismSex tourism involving children is the commercial sexual exploitation of children by one or manypeople travelling outside of their province, geographic region, or country. Women prefer to go toINDIA (Goa), Jamaica or Gambia whereas men travel to South-East Asia, Morocco, Senegal,Dominican Republic, Cuba, Panama, Suriname and Brazil. For many years now, tourist guideshave provided the addresses where one can procure the services of a child.In most cases, prostituted children are under the control of pimps, who earn a percentage ofchild’s revenues. It is very difficult to diminish this hold.ConclusionWe live in a society where children are said to be God’s embodiment on earth. Women areworshipped in the form of Saraswati, Laskhmi and Durga- the goddesses of knowledge, wealthand power respectively. Children are also called bal-gopala. During Navratri, young Girl’s areworshipped and giving them food is considered an act of redemption – and yet, not a single daypasses when the papers do not carry news of the rape of innocent girl’s. This hypocriticalmindset of ours is most responsible for child-trafficking. We witness incidents of atrocities oninnocent, trafficked children around us- in our homes, shops and factories- yet we feignignorance. Millions travel on trains and buses everyday but ignoring the fact that someone sittingnext to them could be a middleman committing an act of child trafficking there and them. Astrong initiative is necessary to remove this public stain on society. The main components ofsuch an initiative should be: making new laws and taking responsibility to implement the;voicing concerns against child trafficking punishing the guilty by completing the judicial processin timely fashion; making special efforts towards the education and rehabilitation of children7 Sex industry is on the rise, Staff Reporter, (Oct, 23, 1998, 12:00 Am) https://mg.co.za/article/1998-10- 23-sex-industry-is- on-the- rise.1IV14rescued from child trafficking; providing useful and high quality education to children free ofcost; and providing opportunities for economic development in districts that are perceived to bethe hubs of human-trafficking, among others.