Chapter 251. ¨Describe the rise of the American industrial city, and place it in the context of worldwide trends of urbanization and mass migration (the European diaspora).¨With the shift to urbanization and industrialization rather than agriculture, cities began to rapidly expand. Not only populations, but the actual size of cities grew due to the work of famed architects such as Louis Sullivan, who built monumental skyscrapers in cities such as Chicago. Cities started out as small urban settlements that could be traversed on foot, into large metropolises that required public transportation; Cities met this need in the form of electric trolleys that helped people commute to work and home. Advanced settlements had amenities such as plumbing, electricity, and telephones, which made city life more appealing. Department stores like Macy’s and and Marshall Field’s helped provide employment to many citizens and a place for middle class shoppers to meet needs of city life. Authors like Theodore Dreiser wrote novels such as Sister Carrie that recounted the escapades of women in cities that helped attract settlers. A problem that cities had was the disposal of waste. Unlike farmers that could just feed “trash” to animals, city dwellers had trouble disposing of all of their garbage. 2. ¨Describe the New Immigration, and explain how it differed from the Old Immigration and why it aroused opposition from many native-born Americans.¨What were considered “old immigrants” usually came from western Europe, from countries such as England, Scandinavia, Germany, and Ireland. These immigrants that migrated to America before 1880 were typically Protestant or catholic (in the case of the Irish), and of Anglo-Saxon origin. Those known as “new immigrants” came from Eastern and Southern Europe and were Jewish or followed the Eastern Orthodox Church. These new immigrants were for the most part unskilled and most were illiterate, which made their only option working in factories. The “native population” of America began to discriminate against the increasing number of these immigrants, fearing that their large numbers would lead to the anglo-saxon majority to become the minority. These natives also blamed the newcomers for problems in society such as government degradation and corruption. Unionists were angered by the immigrants because they took cheap paying jobs and set back unions’ campaigns for higher wages. Groups such as the APA aimed to prevent immigrants from obtaining any political power and the government was slowly pressured into preventing more immigrants from entering the country.3. ¨Discuss the efforts of social reformers and churches to aid the New Immigrants and alleviate urban problems, and the immigrants’ own efforts to sustain their traditions while assimilating to mainstream America.¨Many attempts were made by reformers to aid the”new immigrants” and reduce the amount of problems they faced in the integration into urban settlements. The main goal of certain aid organizations was just to help the poor, not necessarily immigrants, assimilate into city life, but much of the lower class were immigrants in poverty. Groups like the YMCA and the Salvation Army helped spread a wave of reform and service through providing basic services to many of these immigrants. Many religious groups were also formed to help spiritually, such as bible study groups. A wave of spirit known as the Settlement House Movement, led by middle class citizens such as Jane Addams, helped provide education, medical care, and food to the immigrants in need. Public schools were created, and compulsory attendance laws passed, to encourage education and learning about the American way of life, specifically in cities. A more difficult objective was to incite political reform in the government. Reformers wanted laws to prevent factories being built in residential areas Another popular reform goal was to ban the use of alcohol. 4. ¨Analyze the changes in American religious life in the late nineteenth century, including the expansion of Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Judaism, and the growing Protestant division between liberals and fundamentalists over Darwinism and biblical criticism.¨”This was known as The Golden Age of Freethought. It was generally recognized to have lasted from the end of the American Civil War until the end of World War I. With the beginning of World War I many governments, including the United States, passed laws against free speech and began regulating speech more closely. However, it was not World War I that brought an end to the Golden Age of Freethought, but rather it was the Bolshevik Revolution, which elevated anti-religious ideas to a new level of threat against the established social order. Religious criticism in the Freethought era is distinguished from the earlier Enlightenment era by being much less academic and much more popular, it’s when religious criticism moved into normal society.”5. ¨Explain the changes in American education and intellectual life, including the debate between DuBois and Washington over the goals of African American education.¨”One of the reasons for the growth of popular education has been the spread of democratic ideas and of the application of industry to science. It began to dawn upon the people how profitable it would be for each inhabitant of a country to be able to communicate with or receive communications from others through ability to read and write. This ability, once gained and used, would break down the barriers which cut off a large part of the people from the influence of the current of the intellectual life of the nation, and also in a measure would efface the inequality which is caused by the neglect to provide any kind of instruction for the masses. There were charity schools supported by the churches or other charitable organizations before the beginning of the last century, but these were few and far between. Whatever education was given was granted as a boon. To-day education is regarded as a right in a civilized country, and an enlightened government appreciates the fact that the illiterate cannot become good citizens. Mental development leads to moral development, and influences physical improvement.” 6. ¨Describe the literary and cultural life of the period, including the widespread trend towards realism in art and literature, and the city beautiful movement led by urban planners.¨The late nineteenth century saw a wide shift towards The trend of realism in contrast to the previous Romanticism. Realism was focused on the perception of reality and daily lives of humans rather than a focus on perfection. It drew from naturalism, which portrayed nature more realistically rather than something sentimentalized. Artists endeavored to make their works more “truthful”, and started focusing on more everyday subjects such as people in routine life, landscapes, ordinary scenes, and contemporary life. 7. ¨Explain the growing national debates about morality in the late nineteenth century, particularly in relation to the changing roles of women and the family.¨Towards the end of the nineteenth century, America saw many drastic changes in politics, morality, and culture. As the middle class grew, power began to lean away from the wealthy aristocrats, the ideology of nationalism arose, and political empires fell after years of stability. One of the most drastic changes, was the shift in morality ideas. Industrialism brought millions to cities and began an era of urbanization. Religious interests were revived for a short while before being overtaken by moral and ethic efforts arose. As the idea of “the cult of domesticity” and, women increasingly left the home to work in factories and obtain an income of their own. Many groups campaigned for women’s rights, most importantly, was the right to vote. Chapter 261. ¨Describe the nature of the cultural conflicts and battles that accompanied the white American migration into the Great Plains and the Far West.¨The Dawes severalty Act was the white Americans’ way of trying to assimilate Natives into American culture and wipe out their different way of life. It authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. A major contrast between the cultures was their treatment of natural resources. The Indians hunted buffalo for food and put every part of the body to use so that none died in vain. The white settlers hunted them for sport and often didn’t use any of the body at all. 2. ¨Explain the development of federal policy towards Native Americans in the late nineteenth century.¨Up until the late nineteenth century, interactions between settlers and natives were quite limited, because most of the native population had moved west past the appalachian mountains. But as industrialism emerged and western settlement increased, tribes were caught in the middle of things. Tribes were often forced out of their territories to areas that could not support a population. When they would not leave voluntarily, the government sought federal action to remove them. When the federal government realized that most of their attempts to displace the natives were ineffective, they made attempts at assimilating them into American culture. 3. ¨Analyze the brief flowering and decline of the cattle and mining frontiers, and the settling of the arid West by small farmers increasingly engaged with a worldwide economy.¨”The cattle trade was at its peak from 1867 until the early 1880s. The following factors contributed to this: Increased number of railway lines – able to transport cattle to new markets. Development of refrigerated rail carriages – cattle could be slaughtered before transportation. Removal of Indians from the Plains to reservations – more land available for ranching. In the last twenty years of the nineteenth century the beef trade virtually collapsed. The following factors contributed to this: Farmers began to experiment with different breeds of cattle that could not live on the open range. There was less grass available for grazing due to the number of people settling on the Plains. In 1883 there was a drought that ruined what grass there was.The demand for beef fell which meant that ranching was less profitable. The winter of 1886/7 was very severe – cattle and cowboys died in the freezing temperatures”4. ¨Summarize Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis regarding the significance of the frontier in American history, describe its strengths and weaknesses, and indicate the ways in which the American West became and remains a distinctive region of the United States.¨”Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis was encompassed in his seminal essay, The Significance of the frontier in American history. The thesis shares his views on how the idea of the frontier shaped the American being and characteristics. He writes how the frontier drove American history and why America is what it is today. Turner reflects on the past to illustrate his point by noting human fascination with the frontier and how expansion to the American West changed people’s views on their culture. It is a thesis that has been respected in the historical circle for many years.”5. ¨Describe the economic forces that drove farmers into debt, and describe how the Populist Party organized to protest their oppression, attempted to forge an alliance with urban workers, and vigorously attacked the two major parties after the onset of the depression of the 1890s¨.Nearing the end of of the nineteenth century, farmers faced many difficulties. The boom in industrialism and factories meant that there were much less workers to be hired on the farms. The economy mostly favored industry than agriculture at this point in time, and the rising prices of crops did not help either. Farmers became dependent on machines for harvest as well, which drove them to raise their prices to cover the cost of machinery. They were also dealt the short end of the stick in the railroad industry. Railroad companies would offer what were known as “rebates” to frequent and large customers such as members of the Oil industry, which were reduced prices. This meant small farmers were charged way more to ship their goods, and often could not get their goods to market at all and went bankrupt. The interstate Commerce Act addressed this issue by banning rebates and pools. 6. ¨Describe the Democratic party’s revolt against President Cleveland and the rise of the insurgent William Jennings Bryan’s free silver campaign.¨”Democratic Grover Cleveland was unanimously nominated a second time as the democratic’ presidential nominee. He lost however to Republican nominee Benjamin Harrison due to a number of issues. Tariff policy was the principal issue in the election, as Cleveland had proposed a dramatic reduction in tariffs, arguing that high tariffs were unfair to consumers. Harrison took the side of industrialists and factory workers who wanted to keep tariffs high. Cleveland’s opposition to Civil War pensions and inflated currency also made enemies among veterans and farmers. On the other hand, he held a strong hand in the South and border states, and appealed to former Republican Mugwumps.”7. ¨Explain why William McKinley proved able to defeat Bryan’s populist campaign and how the Republicans’ triumph signaled the rise of urban power and the end of the third party system in American politics.¨McKinley was previously a senator of Ohio. His campaign focused on the currency issue, and he strongly supported having gold currency in circulation. He promoted it as an easier currency due to its intrinsic value and easier to manage. He was able to defeat Bryan’s populist campaign because he was on a fine line between the Democratic and Populist party, and didn’t have true support from one party.