CHAPTER performances are both inside and outside the school.




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Education is essential for the development of society.
The more educated the people of a society are, the more civilized and well
disciplined the society might be. Mainly, family has responsibility to
socialize children for making them productive members of society. The more the
parents involve in the process of imparting education to their children, the
more the children might excel in their academic career and to become the
productive and responsible members of society.


Parents are the most immediate relation of a child.
Their education do have an important influence on the personality of child.
Educated parents can better understand the educational needs and their
children’s aptitude. They can help their children in their early education
which affects their proficiency in their relative area of knowledge.


Parenal education factors are of vital importance in
effecting students’ educational achievements. They are like backbone in
providing mental confidence to students. Explicit difference can be observed
between those students who belong to different different parental educational
level. Education is a primary need in this era of globalization. Education not
only gives insight, it also grooms the personality, inculcates moral values,
add knowledge and gives skill. Education is necessary owing to the atmosphere
of competition .In every field highly qualified people are needed. As Battle
and Lewis states; “In this era of globalization and technological revolution,
education is considered as a first step for every human activity. It plays a
vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an
individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living.”


 The world is
making progress day by day because education is the only key to match the pace
of its progress. People are giving preference to higher education. The quality
of students’ performance remains at the top priority for educators. The
variables effecting students academic performances are both inside and outside
the school. There are a number of factors that affect students’ performance
like  parent’s education and their
involvement in child’s studies, student’s gender, time allocation, technology,
available facilities and lots of more. “The formal investigation about the role
of these demographic factors rooted back in 17th century (Mann, 1985).”


It has been assumed that academic achievement of
students may not only depend on the quality of schools and the teachers, rather
the extent of parental involvement has vital role to play in academic
achievement of their kids.


It may often a confusing time for students, their
families, and the other adults in their lives who seek to support their healthy
development and learning.


Parental involvement in a child’s education along with
environmental and economic factors may affect child development in areas such
as cognition, language, and social skills. Numerous studies in this area have
demonstrated the importance of family interaction and involvement in the years
prior to entering school (Bergsten, 1998; Hill, 2001; Wynn, 2002). Research
findings have also shown that a continued effort of parental involvement
throughout the child’s education can improve academic achievement (Driessen,
Smit & Sleegers, 2005; Fan, 2001; Hong & Ho, 2005). Academic failure
has been linked with risk behaviors and negative outcomes such as; substance
abuse, delinquency, and emotional and behavioral problems (Annunziata, Houge,
Faw, & Liddle, 2006)


Parental involvement has been linked with academic
achievement. Although little research has been done in the area of parental
involvement and students, the literature review examines the many factors that
may contribute to the level of parental involvement and academic achievement of
students.This project sought to identify the different impacts of parental
education on achievement of students.


1.2- Statement of the Problem

The current study was
designed to see association of parental education with achievement of students.

1.3- Significance of the study

this study will be
significant for parent’s as well as for student’s about their academic
achievements. This study provide the awareness about the effect of parent’s
education on the academic achievement of their children’s.


1.4- Objective of the Study

The sole objective of the
study is to explore the effect of the parent’s education on the achievement of
student’s in their academic career.


1.5- Hypothesis

Null hypothesis is formulated
as under

There is no significant
impact of parental education on student’s achievements.


Whereas, the alternative
hypothesis is given in the following

There is a significant impact
of  parental education on student’s


1.6- Delimitation

1. Due to limited time and resources this is delimited to
only one Universty                                             of


1.7- Operational Definition


1.       Student: University of Sargodha student’s are included in this


2.       Academic Achievement: academic achievement of the student has been through















                      CHAPTER 2 







This chapter present the
review of the related literature.The electronic resources have been explored to
extract the information about study of the association parental education with
achievement of student’s. Parents education has strong impact on the academic
achievement of the student’s.

Parents education play
significant role to motivate student’s for their academic achievements.



2.1- Students

A person formally engaged in
learning, especially one enrolled in a school or collage

Any person who
studies, investigate, or examines thoughtfully:


2.2- Parental


education refers to organized, planned efforts designed to enhance
understanding of and performance in the parental role.


Parenting Education has been defined as:
“programs, support services and resources offered to parents and
caregivers that are designed to support them or increase their capacity and
confidence in raising healthy children” (Carter, 1996).



2.3- Academic Achievement


achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the

 extent to which a person has accomplished
specific goals that were the

of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college,
and university. School systems mostly define cognitive goals that either apply
across multiple subject areas (e.g., critical thinking) or include the
acquisition of knowledge and understanding in a specific intellectual domain
(e.g., numeracy, literacy, science, history). Therefore, academic achievement
should be considered to be a multifaceted construct that comprises different
domains of learning. Because the field of academic achievement is very
wide-ranging and covers a broad variety of educational outcomes, the definition
of academic achievement depends on the indicators used to measure it.


 Among the many criteria that indicate academic
achievement, there are very general indicators such as procedural and
declarative knowledge acquired in an educational system, more curricular-based
criteria such as grades or performance on an educational achievement test, and
cumulative indicators of academic achievement such as educational degrees and
certificates. All criteria have in common that they represent intellectual
endeavors and thus, more or less, mirror the intellectual capacity of a person.
In developed societies, academic achievement plays an important role in every
person’s life.

 Academic achievement as measured by the GPA
(grade point average) or by standardized assessments designed for selection
purpose such as the SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) determines whether a
student will have the opportunity to continue his or her education (e.g., to
attend a university).




General Overviews

The exploration of academic achievement has led to numerous
empirical studies and fundamental progress such as the development of the first
intelligence test by Binet and Simon. Introductory textbooks such as “Woolfolk
2007” provide theoretical and empirical insight into the determinants of
academic achievement and its assessment. However, as academic achievement is a
broad topic, several textbooks have focused mainly on selected aspects of
academic achievement, such as enhancing academic achievement or specific
predictors of academic achievement.

 A thorough, short, and
informative overview of academic achievement is provided in “Spinath 2012”. “Spinath
2012” emphasizes the importance of academic achievement with regard to
different perspectives (such as for individuals and societies, as well as
psychological and educational research). However, Spinath 2012  points
out that it is more appropriate to speak of “predictors” instead of
determinants of academic achievement because the mostly cross-sectional nature
of the underlying research does not allow

causal conclusions to be drawn.

2.4- Meaning of Academic Achievement

 the outcome of education — the
extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational

2.       Academic achievement refers to
the level of schooling you have successfully completed and the ability to
attain success in your studies


Academic Involvement and


Examining whether parental
education level is related to parental involvement in a student’s academics is
a topic of study that helps to understand what contributes to an individual’s
academic success. Also, finding whether parental education level predicts an
individual’s academic success could be important to know. An individual’s
success in academics is influenced by many factors.

Examining factors that
contribute to the presence of certain assets is a continuing area of research.
Restrictions or obstacles created by said factors may be related to an
individual’s academic success by hindering the presence or proper functioning
of essential assets. It is important to look at external assets such as
parental involvement because, while these factors are beyond the control of the
individual, they are likely to still impact academic success. A characteristic
that may affect the amount of parental involvement in an individual’s academics


Parental Education Level  

Parental education may
influence the willingness or ability for parents to become involved
(Bogenschneider, 1997). Many studies have shown that parental education plays a
significant role in the amount of parental involvement. In this study, the
relationship between parental education level and parental involvement in high
school and college, as well as how parental education level and academic success
in high school and college are correlated were examined.

Psychologists have studied
the importance of parental education level as it relates to an individual’s
academic success (Bakker, Denessen, & Brus-Laeven, 2007; Bogenschneider,
1997; Hill et al., 2002; Sandefur et al., 2005). They have found important
factors that should be considered when researching this topic. These include
defining parental involvement; the parental education level as it may impact
the amount of involvement in their child’s academia, and whether the impact is
a direct or indirect influence. 


Parental Involvement

Some studies emphasize the
idea that higher levels of education of parents and parental involvement both
have impacts on an individual’s academic success (Blair, Blair, & Madamba,
Parental Education Level 1999; Tavani & Losh, 2003). However, regardless of
the parents’ education level, the more involved parents are in their child’s education
the better students perform academically and reaches a higher level of
achievement in high school (Bakker et al., 2007; Bogenschneider, 1997). The
degree of impact of parental involvement on an individual’s academic success
may vary. Some studies show that when the parents who have lower levels of
education are more involved, the effect is greater and more positive than when
parents who have higher levels of education are involved (Bogenschneider, 1997;
Hill et al., 2002). 


Influence of Parental

There are several reasons why
the education level of parents may be related to the amount of involvement they
have in their child’s academics. Families of lower SES generally have parents
with lower education levels. As a result, these families may have fewer
resources to help their child academically. These parents may not have the same
opportunities to offer their child, such as tutors or computers (Blair et al.,
1999; Bogenschneider, 1997; Sandefur et al., 2005). However, there are several
ways that parents may become involved in their child’s academics so that even
parents with fewer resources can participate (Bakker et al., 2007).  In addition, a student whose home is of lower
SES may not provide the same opportunities as the home of a student whose
parents have higher income (Bogenschneider, 1997).  Furthermore, parents with a higher education
level typically have more of an opportunity to become more involved in academic
success (Bogenschneider, 1997).

Parents with lower levels of
education may not feel capable of assisting their child or playing a role in
his academic life as they may not understand the material or feel comfortable
with their abilities (Hill et al., 2002). In contrast, studies show that some
parents with lower levels of education do become involved because of a Parental
Education Level desire for their child to have upward mobility in the world and
so their child achieves things they themselves could not (Hill et al.,


do much better in school when their parents are actively involved in their

effort is consistently associated with higher levels of achievement, and the
magnitude of the effect of parental effort is substantial.Parents seemed
particularly interested in the academic achievements of their children’s. The
researchers found parents spent more time talking to the children’s about their
academic work during dinnertime discussions.The researchers also found that
parents may reduce their efforts when school resources increase, thus
diminishing the effects of improved school resources.

 As a result, increasing school resources may
not be as effective as we expect since they may diminish parental involvement.




Parents’ role in
the  education of their children

 The first institution of a child where he  learns is his home. A child passes most of
his time with his parents and learns 
from his parents and the environment provided to him by his parents in
home.  Parents play a vital role in the
education of their child, whatever child’s age 
is, (either he read in college or in school). If parents pay attention
to their  children, they make more
scholastic achievements than those who are ignored. If  parents take care of following things, they
can improve the education of their 

 Give  more time to your children.

                 Spare  time in your busy routine, for your children.
If you keep on ignoring your  children,
it will make them feel irresponsible and they will lose interest in  study.spend time with your children as much
as  possible and discuss with them about
their studies daily. Ask them daily, what 
did they read in school or college today. Help them in their studies,
if  possible. Talk to them about the how
can they improve. Make them aware  of the
importance of study in their life. By 
this way, children start taking interest in their studies and they do
well in  exam.If  you do not give them time you cannot expect
that they well do well in their 


them a supportive environment in home.


                Home  environment affects a student life a lot. Create
a loving environment having  good
relationships among all family members which has a good impact on the mind  of your children so that they can study well.
If the environment of home  stresses
children, they will not be able to concentrate on their studies.

Create  a supportive and educational environment in
home. Don’t do such activities  which can
absorb the attention of your children while they study like turn off  television when they study. Provide them a
quiet place for study where they can 
study with more concentration and interest. Paste some charts or tables
(having  study material) on the walls of


your children.


                Appreciate  if they do well in exam and if they get less
grades encourage them for hard  work. By
appreciating them for their achievements in exam, they start to struggle more
to get more appreciation. Encouraging them if they fail or get  less marks enables them to stand again and
start with new determination.Make link with the school or college teachers  of your children.Visit  their school college once a week and ask the
relevant teacher about the studies of your children. It will give you the idea
about the study of your children. You come to know about the weakness of your
children and then try to improve accordingly. If you ask the their teacher,
your children will study whole heartedly


 Discuss with your children about their


                Your  children may have some problems which hinder
their study. Ask your children if they have some problems and try to solve
their problem. Be friendly while discussing with them about their problems so
that they can discuss openly.


 Keep watch on the activities of your children

Have watch on
the daily activities of your children and see they may not be utilizing their
energy and time in un-necessary activities. They may not be wasting time in
playing game or watching movies for a lot of time. Never suspect on your
children but have watch on their activities in a way so that they may not feel
that you are suspecting on them.


Improve the
study habits of your children.

Advise your
children about how to develop study habits. Make your children sleep in time
and get up early in the morning. Make them sit for study if they do not, so
that they develop the study habit. Show them the tips for good study and
preparation for exam. Stop them from useless activities.


 Your behavior while advising them

should have balance in your love and strictness to your children. Have
love while advising your children for studies Have authoritative behavior while
prohibiting them from some things. Never beat them but strictly prohibit them
from wasting time or unnecessary activities or wrong manners etc so that can
take it serious and follow it