Cadbury web using effective examples and a few factors

Cadbury Company
is one of the biggest leading chocolate franchises in the UK which was
established in 1824 by its founder, John Cadbury who stretched
the business with his brother Benjamin and his sons Richard and George
(Cadbury, 2016). Being an international chocolate brand, Cadbury was able
to rise to the top of the market by being the market leader and by improving their
global status by producing new products to the market (Fat profits: Choc
tactics 2004). As a safe follower of Quaker traditions, they employed Quaker views
to the company. In late 1879, the Bourneville estate known as “The Factory in a
Garden”, a village with very small population was built to improve company’s
workers living environments by employing around to be estimated 1000 workers
(Cadbury, 2016).

This report
revolves and covers all aspects around the Cadbury franchise where the author
will be conversing about the two main theories of the Organisational Structure,
Culture and the Motivation of Cadbury. The theory “Culture” is a
powerful method that can form the organization’s overall performance. In this
report, the author will be covering the cultural web using effective examples
and a few factors that manipulate the culture of an organization.

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is another other topic the author will be aiming to discuss in this report
using Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. As a company, Cadbury has motivated
their workers by following many motivational theories.

the author will be using Iceberg’s theory to explain the relationship between the
culture and motivation and also its request to the Cadbury Company will be viewed
and discussed in the report via cultural web.










Conferring to Jones (2013, p201),
culture can be explained as a set of shared values and standards that controls
the organizational member’s communication with each other and people outside
the organization. At the same time, organizational
culture is defined as the pattern of expectations,
values and norms that are usually shared by the organizational members (Mathew,
2009). This
contains the organization standards, working language, ethical codes,
symbols, beliefs and habits (Brown, 1995).

Culture of an
organisation is usually associated with the personality of an individual
(Mullins, 2013) and is very crucial as it places the base for positive and
negative performance of the employees and that also leads to the organizations
long term success (Robbins, 2005). It also controls
the overall “feel” of the organization, although it may differ across changed
segments of the organization. 

An organization culture can give an idea of an
identity for employees, develop their commitment and motivation towards an organizational
goal, and it will also explain and strengthen the normal behaviour of the
organization. Furthermore, depending on how employees behave, how they perform
their tasks that are set, their relationship and interactions with their
managers and co-workers that can be influenced through organizational culture (Cunliffe,
2008), hence why it affects the organisations’ overall performance.

 If the
organizational culture is enhanced to a positive position, the performance and the
employee’s satisfaction will steadily increase to a higher position. Specifically,
how the employees would feel to work in the organisational environment, this
will then mean the employees’ loyalty, happiness and whether the employees
would be satisfied to work for the organisation.
An example could be, if the organizational culture agrees to employees to take
risks and be original, employees would be more motivated to do and try new
things which will lead to high performance. Furthermore, when the
organization culture is at its lowest or weak, it will have a deep negative
affect on the organization performance and
employees’ approval as well (Robbins, 2005).

The determinants of organizational
culture can be signified using a cultural web developed by Johnson and Scholes
(1992) which is portrayed in the diagram 1.

Diagram 1- Cultural Web

– (Capon, 2008)


The diagram one, story represents
organization’s history, major events and society in the past. Usually this is
explained to the new people in the organization and this displays the
acceptable and unacceptable behaviour in the organization (Capon, 2008). For an
example a company is known for high complaints, suspend of senior executive


Symbols Stands for the power a person can hold within
the organization and it also shows the worth of a person to the organization.

– Job titles and Salaries 

Power Structures

Power Structures are the group of individuals
with power strengthened by a common set of morals and beliefs.

an example, General Managers

Organizational Structure

where the power occurs in the organization. It either comes in the form of
simple structure, functional structure, divisional and matrix structure.

Control Systems

The Control System oversees what is important
to the organization.

– salary, bonuses, budgets and reward systems

Routines and Rituals

Routines and Rituals are daily behaviour and
actions of people that determine what is vital and what strengthens the way
they do things around the organization. This makes sure the running of the
organization is smooth and very crucial in strong culture organizations (Capon,

For an
example, promotions, induction and training

it is a clear fact that the organizations need to follow a certain set of
values and standards within a country or a broader society they are operated
in., it The organizational culture is existing at different levels and has a
direct impact on each other’s individual levels (Cunliffe, 2008, p 61).

Diagram two illustrates numerous factors swaying
the culture of an organisation.


Organisational /
Cooperate         Culture







National Culture
Ex- American, Indian

Professional Culture

Regional Culture
European, African

2- Factors swaying culture of an organization source – (Cunliffe, 2008)




study of motivation associates to see how people perform in certain ways. It is
concerned that people have unique preferences to others. Nevertheless,
organizations need to direct their employees in to the right motivational path
in order to reach their set targets. In this way, the organisation will be able
to reach their goals firmly.  ( 2016)

It is
very difficult to control which direction the organization is heading without
setting its goals and targets. Moreover, when the goals are not clear by the
management, employees would then get demotivated and may not put their full effort
and commitment to finish of daily tasks which can crucially result to careless
work and mistakes that potentially could cause the organization to lose on a
lot of customers and its reputation. Hence, the organization needs to form its
goals and motivate their employees through appreciations, promotions and
rewards by impacting mental and physical human reactions (Barton, 2015).

There are
several motivational theories on motivating employees and by this means it
increase the effectiveness and organisational target. Abraham Maslow’s
Hierarchy of needs is one of the most effective motivational models used to
this day in businesses for understanding human motivation.  Maslow’s theory is mainly focused on the
psychological needs of the employees and conferring to this theory, there are
five motivational needs concerning the responsibility of employers to give a
better working environment that inspires employees. If the organisation understands
and treat their employees well as per the levels of needs, the organisation will
be able to get the maximum level of motivation in terms of loyalty,
productivity and productivity from its employees (Mullins, 2013).



Diagram 3 illustrates the structure of Maslow’s
hierarchy theory for motivation.

Diagram 3- Maslow’s hierarchy theory
for motivation
Mullins (2013)



3 shows that the bottom level starts from “Physiological Needs”, these are physical or basic every day needs such as food, shelter people need
by surviving day to day basis (Mullins, 2013). Organisations could use these
factors and give employees with cafés, free meals and they could also arrange
with a satisfying accommodation for distant employees. By this way,
organization can make sure their employees are in a good condition and so they
can motivate them.

comes “Safety Needs”, in other
words this is the need for safety and security in terms of job security,
insurance, financial security and health. When the physiological needs of the
employees are met, the need for safety controls their behaviour. For an
example, making sure safety at a work place and giving the company own
insurance or medical claim for all employees promises that workers will have no
such issues when it comes to the safety of the job and the solidity. Furthermore,
the organisation can please, retain and get the full input from its workers.

Thirdly, it is the level of need is “Social Needs” which means it is expressively-based
relationships such as friendship and love. Furthermore, these are needed to
communicate with others which could be either family, friends or even colleagues.
When “Social Needs” are not met, it will create an lonely and disheartened
feeling in people’s mind(Maslow,2012). Achieving these needs will help
employees to work freely without being exposed to depression and social
anxiety. When there is no chance to co-operate with other people, family or
friends people will have bad mind set and it will decrease their ability to
work effectively.

“Esteem” is the fourth level Maslow’s hierarchy
theory. “Esteem” means the need for an individual to be respected, to be
self-esteemed and self-respected. When an individual is working for a precise alleged
organisation, employees usually try to get involved and contribute with the
organisational activities in order to feel accepted and valued within the
workplace (Maslow, 2012). Instances such as job titles and high status of the
job or even feedback from the job itself will help employee to gain more respect
and self-confidence within the working environment.

comes “Self-Actualization” which marks
when other needs have been achieved. This includes creativity, intellectual needs and achieving
targets. Morality can be taken for as one of the characteristics of the
self-actualisation. From the organisation’s view, this could be giving a
challenging job, create new employee prospects, creativity and achievements
within the workplace. When the needs are achieved, it will motivate people to
achieve more. (Mullins, 2013).

Maslow’s theory describes human needs, it also has its limitations (Management
study guide, 2016). A noticeable example would be in some cultures and social
needs are at the main phase such as teamwork or group projects at the
workplace.  As a result, social needs
come before any other need. Furthermore, in difference with past and present
needs of employees, there could be other important needs apart from the five
needs that motivate individuals in the working place. (Mullins, 2013).
Therefore, it could be debated that this model cannot be essentially applied
for the current business world and hence it is required for organizations to
re-consider the needs before taking in this model.


between Culture and Motivation

When conversing
about the association between the culture and the motivation, it is vital to
understand the individuals’ views, values and attitude which are the key traits
of motivation (Mihaela and Catalin, 2014). For that reason, it could be debated
that the knowledge of the culture is a crucial complement to the

It is required
for any organization to balance both culture and motivation specifically within
the working place. The organization need to be alert, comprehend and counter to
each individual’s needs in a way which both organisation and individuals can collaborate
together in order to gain the full effort from employees to achieve their goals.
(Maehr, 2008)

have their own distinctive cultures which are different from one another, the
employees’ motivation could be either positively or negatively affected. For an
example, an organisation with a wealthy culture gives many benefits to their
employees such as accommodation, food, company insurance policies and respect
in order to motivate and satisfy their employees and an organization with a
poor culture may not offer benefits to satisfy its employees’ needs.

the organisation meets employee required basic needs, it will have a positive effect
on their organisational behaviour and performance. This is due to because the
employees will be pleased by the benefits they would receive from the
organisation and therefore it will help them to growth the level of their
motivation towards their work and attempt to work up to their potential.
Nevertheless, when the organization fails to please employees needs through benefits
and rewards, it will again generate a negative impact on their organisational
performance. Furthermore, there are situations where even when the company
meets all the needs according to the company’s solidity, some employees could
compare the benefits what they get from the company with another steady company
and in that way they will become demotivated.

the “Iceberg” theory explains the relationship between culture and motivation. In
the “Iceberg” theory, Hemingway explains overt formal aspects and covert
behavioural aspects. According to Hemingway, overt aspects known as artefacts are
the noticeable factors above the water line, such as organisational customers,
designs, rituals and physical facilities while covert traits are the hidden
elements and the most rooted aspects of organizations’ culture which includes attitudes,
values and beliefs, personalities and communication patterns (Mullins, 2013). For
an organisation to motivate their employee’s it is crucial to understand the covert
traits as it represents the cognitively and psychologically built collective
mind set of the employees of the organization.

the positive organization culture will lead to higher level of motivation and
positive organizational behaviour which will improve the organizational
performance. However, negative organization culture will then result to
demotivation and poor organizational behaviour, by this means it will lower the
organizational performance.


of Culture and Motivation to the Cadbury

As a follower
of the “Quaker Traditions”, Cadbury was running under Quaker views by the
founder, John Cadbury (Rowlinson, 1995). They believe the light of god is in
every single individual. An individual who’s following god’s will always be
able to reach a complete relationship with god. Quakers are members of the Christian roots who
strongly believe in God and value each individual equally, and compete against
anything that may harm or threaten them. According to John Cadbury and
what he was following in Quaker religion, selling alcohol was not a good thing
within the society (Mullins, 2013). They support strict truthfulness in business dealings, workplace and
prefer to choose work that have positive benefits for the community. Furthermore,
they always value men and women equally and are at unease about human rights,
freedom of conscience and environmental issues ( It could also be
said that the workers of Cadbury
Company were treated equally even though their business decisions are
not centred on a majority, yet on what they do “sense of the meeting”

After they have decided to build a new
factory in 1878 four miles away from Birmingham their colleagues thought it was
a chancy decision to move from the city due to the transportation matters the workers
could face and the problems they could get with transporting things. However, he
had a solution which was Bourneville. Bourneville was a “Housing Scheme”.
George Cadbury wanted to build for their workers together with with his brother
Richard. Even employees were unwilling to move to Bourneville.

this section, it targets and focuses on how motivation applies to Cadbury. During
the time Cadbury had a good reputation for being the “Successful Employers”,
people wanted to work for such a caring employer. Cadbury thought it was in
short supply to recruit school leaver’s age of fourteen. Reason for is because
they thought people who have gained complete education would grow creativity, variation
and self-discipline towards the company’s success. There was enough help for
the employees who needed support when it came to work on their knowledge in the
area they were working. Classes were also accessible in specific areas to gain
more effectiveness. For women there were a variety of activities held by
Cadbury. PT focused on gymnastics which was compulsory for them to progress eye
and hand coordination. This is simply because they contributed over half of the
workforce. By this way Cadbury has stimulated their employees to work with
confidence (Bradley, 2008).


1902 a striking 30% annual capital expenditure was on welfare facilities (Bradley,
2008). They also motivated their employees by giving hot coffee or milk, bread
or buns for being on time (Cadbury). Model village had grasslands, tennis
courts and playgrounds. George building these facilities were crucial because
he wanted to experiment the benefit of these lands completely, not just for
individuals but for the whole community. Nevertheless, these type of social
works could be seen as motivational factors to growth employee’s ability to
work efficiently. When relating Maslow’s hierarchy model to Cadbury it shows
that the Cadbury has been able to recognise the levels of needs. 




The case analysis report gives a detailed
insight into Culture and the Motivation and its relation to the
Cadbury. In section 1, the idea of culture and how its effect on
Organisational performance is clarified using Cultural web as well as its different
factors swaying the culture of an Organisation are established to give a better

the second important idea of organizational structure is motivation and how the
organizations motivate their employees is explained using Maslow’s hierarchy theory for motivation.
Though, it can be concluded that even though Maslow’s theory describes human
needs, it also has its boundaries and this model cannot be essentially applied
for the current business world and therefore required for organizations to
re-consider these needs before approval of this model.

Following, the association between culture and
motivation and its influence towards organisation are explained. For that
reason, it could be said that positive organization culture will lead to advanced
level of motivation and positive organizational behaviour which will develop
the organizational performance whereas, the negative organization culture will end
to demotivation and poor organizational behaviour, and thereby lower the
organizational performance.

Last of all, is that the author has established how these
two topics can be applied to Cadbury with visible examples. In this section,
the author has clarified, how Cadbury brothers managed to motivate their
employees by giving the important needs for their employees. As mentioned above, Cadbury’s culture was
straight influenced by the founder John Cadbury who was a strong follower of
the Quaker rules. They strongly believed in god and upheld the strict honour in the business dealings
and in workplace. They always treated men and women equally and are at unease
about human rights, peace and environmental issues, though it could be said
that the workers of Cadbury Company
were treated well and equally.

Therefore, it
can be concluded that an appropriate understanding of employees, their Quaker beliefs
and satisfying employees’ needs by the Cadbury Brother have lead Cadbury to be a
successful confectionary company in the industry