Birth risk. The dramatic rise in cesarean section accounts

Birth is an important culture and social event in
every society (Kehoe, 1981). Every
society has its own meanings attached to birth reflect what a society values in
its self, its member and larger society. The manipulation of human nature by
biomedical technology is increasing and has become a social norm in our society. During the
last hundred years, definition of childbirth changes its direction from normal,
natural, satisfactory to abnormal, dangerous, critical and medical supervision.
These changes come out because dominance of
medicalization process in childbirth, in which natural process.

Medicalization as a form of social control by which human problems come to be defined
and treated as medical problems and thus become the subject of medical study,
diagnosis, prevention,
or treatment. It
consists of actions, such as using medical language to describe a problem, adopting
a medical framework to understand a problem or using a medical intervention to treat
it and finally human life has transformed into a
pathological issue. The medicalization of childbirth is an example of how the
process to birth from midwives and women has transformed into a pathological
issue. With the growing domination of science and technology in the late 19th
century, midwives were displaced by the doctors as the primary resource for the
birthing process.

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Caesarean section,
also known as C-section, is a
surgical procedure by which a fetus is taken from the uterus by cutting through
the walls of the abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more child. Caesarean
section is usually done for the safety of the mother and the baby under
conditions of maternal risk. The
dramatic rise in cesarean section accounts number of explanation includes
increasing induction of labor, increasing detection of fatal distress,
expanding medical control, doctors’ convenience and women request. Caesarean
section refer medicalization of childbirth, a surgical process in which control
of child birth taken from midwives and women and transferred to doctors and
hospitals under medical supervision.


in the 19th century, however, advances in the field of science and
technology gradually led to the medicalization of childbirth throughout the
world. During the 19th century, doctors expand their medical domination and
viewed midwives as the prime competition with regards to controlling women’s
reproductive health. Consequently, midwives were characterized by doctor during
this time period .Today, the vast majority of women give birth in a hospital –
approximately 99 percent in 2004 (Martin et. al., 2006). Moreover, “in most
industrialized countries, childbirth is a defined as a medical event…” (Wijk
et. al., 1996). Our culture is growing more medically and technologically
focused, and patterns of childbirth reflect this trend (Martin, 2001).
Medicalization by its definition requires the identification and labeling of a
process or behavior as abnormal and deviance. Medicalization is a highly
gendered process, and, like many aspects of women’s health, pregnancy has been medicalized
to some degree because of the historical male dominance of the medical field
(Conrad, 1992; Cahill, 2001). During the 20th century, medicine’s control of
childbirth continued, it became much more practical to have a hospital birth. In the 20th century childbirth in the
developed world moved from the home to the hospital observation.  The notion of a “medically monitored
pregnancy” did not emerge in the United States until the 20th century.


Caesarean section is considered major abdominal
surgery that cost about twice as much, long-term stay in hospital and mortality
rate between four to ten times greater than normal vaginal delivery. Half of
the women who have a cesarean experience significant side effects such as
bleeding and wound infection (Cohen & Estner, 1983). The overall benefits
of cesarean section for babies are disputed (Bottoms et. al., 1980; Cohen &
Estner, 1983; Wagner, 1994; Flamm, 2000). Compared to normal
delivery, the rate of childbirth in the caesarian system is increasing
alarmingly in Bangladesh. From 1999
to 2010, caesarean section increased from 0.7 to 12 percent in Bangladesh and this
rate is higher in urban areas than in rural (Sarker et. al., 2012).
International charity organization Save the Children says, 70 percent of the
childbirths by C-section in Bangladesh are unnecessary. The expenditure for
this is 2,523 core. Save the Children published this analysis on C-section in
Bangladesh from London. The organization says, the childbirth by C-section in
Bangladesh has suddenly increased. In 2004, the rate of C-section was 4
percent; it increased to 23 percent in 2014. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey found that in 2014, 23 percent
of children in the country were born through C-section. On the basis of this
calculation, the organization says that last year 8,20,52,122 children were
born by C-section. This report also says that, only 7 percent of the 23 percent
women needed surgery in their pregnancy. That is, the remaining 16 percent was
not required. The number of unnecessary surgeries is 5 lakh 71 thousand 872.
This number is 70 percent of total surgery. On the other hand, many women
cannot afford cesarean delivery. They are mainly poor people. They do not get
emergency maternity care.




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