Biodiesel research work has been done to reduce the

Biodiesel is a fuel made from plant or animal oils
which can be used in conventional diesel engines to serve as a substitute for
petro diesel or blended with petro diesel to reduce emissions. It is
oxygenated, sulphur free, biodegradable, non-toxic, and environmental friendly
alternative automotive fuel. The demand for petroleum is increasing with each
passing day due to an average annual growth rate in the world population. This
increase may lead to a higher demand of crude petroleum and in that case it
becomes necessity to search for alternative fuels which are renewable. The
developing world want future transport fuels and technologies that deliver
lower toxic emission, Lower greenhouse gases, greater efficiency of energy use,
as well as less dependence on foreign oil imports. Bio fuel is a major
contributor to the economic growth of any nation that intends to be
self-reliant. Biodiesel is gaining attention worldwide as an alternative
automotive fuel due to depletion of petroleum products at a faster rate and
strict environment regulations.

Biodiesel may be blended with petroleum diesel in
any percentage. Biodiesel blends from 2% to 20% can be used in most diesel
equipment with no or minor modifications. 
Biodiesel blends are indicated by a letter ”B” with a number following
the letter ”B” represents the volume percentage of biodiesel in the blend

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The major constraint in wide spread use of biodiesel
is the production cost. Considerable research work has been done to reduce the
cost of biodiesel by using low cost feed stocks such as animal fats, restaurant
waste oil and frying oil. These low cost feedstocks are more challenging to
process because they contain high amount of free fatty acids (FFA).

The depletion of world petroleum reserves and
increased environmental concerns has stimulated the search for alternative
renewable fuels that are capable of fulfilling an increasing energy demand. In
recent decades, research concerns and knowledge about the external benefits of
renewable raw materials have intensified the efforts for sustainable energy
sources. Biodiesel plays a major role in this field because of the world-wide
research, development, and deployment activities of this sustainable energy
source. Due to the recent increased awareness and development in this area,
High consumption of conventional energy resources and increasing emission
regulations has motivated an intense search for alternative fuels over the

Both the global and the local effects of the
emissions on the environment are of concern for the use of alternative fuels
for vehicles. The global effect due to the gradual increase of NOx in the
atmosphere was the decisive factor behind the Kyoto protocol of 1997. (11) In
the transport sector the use of renewable fuels is the most effective way of
limiting the net increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Also replacement
of diesel and gasoline by natural gas will reduce the CO2 emissions
due to its lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, although the gain will be much less than
for a renewable fuel. For the local effect of the emissions most focus is
placed on the health hazardous NOx and particulate matter emissions. For new
engines these emissions are strictly regulated by legislation. In the so-called
Euro 4 was effective from 2005, and the Euro 5, which was in force from 2008,
the emissions of NOx, particulate matter, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are
clearly regulated.