Behavioural Communication is a psychological construct which
shows the expression of feelings, needs, and thoughts1. Specifically,
it refers to people’s tendency to express feelings, needs, and thoughts by
means of indirect messages and behavioural impacts. By showing behaviour it
shows that communication shows as well as us talking to others it’s also about
the way we act around them.
Different types of communication behaviour: –
Aggressive: Aggressive communication is the act of purposely
getting your anger out and getting an opinion out in a very aggravated way.
Aggressive communicators typically feel a strong sense of inadequacy, have a
lack of empathy, they also show a lot of control over others views and opinions.
Behaviours often shown when using aggressive communication include: putting
others down, overpowering others, not showing appreciation, ignoring others,
not considering other’s feelings, intimidating others1. Nonverbal
behaviours when using aggressive communication include frowning, glares, rigid
posture, using a loud voice and fast speech. This intimidates others and
service users should not use this type of communication as it puts a barrier
between the patient and carer.
Assertiveness: Assertiveness is the ability to express your
own wants and feelings. Being assertive means you are open to hearing other
opinions and take it into account, without criticizing their opinions but
people are also able to voice there’s as well to agree or disagree with the
opinion. Behaviours that someone may show when engaging in assertive
communication include: being open when expressing their thoughts and feelings,
encouraging others to openly express their own opinions and feelings, listening
to other’s opinions and appropriately responding to them.1
Passive: Passive communication involves not showing anger or
frustration when talking to someone in order to stop conflicts with others and
to seem friendly when communicating. There are many behavioural characteristics
identified with this communication style. These behavioural characteristics include:
– avoid confrontation, have difficulty making decisions as they don’t want to
make decisions that will upset others, agreeing with someone else’s preferences
even if they disagree with what they are saying, refusing compliments, asking
permission unnecessarily, and blaming others1. There are also many
non-verbal behaviours that reflect passive communication, such as someone would
have a soft voice, speak hesitantly, and make themselves very small so as not
to attract attention to themselves. They also tend to fidget and avoid eye
contact because they feel awkward talking to others.
Passive aggressive: It has aspects of both passive and
aggressive communication. Someone who is passive aggressive will take in the
information they are given, but will not do anything about it so their anger
and words are indirect. People known as passive aggressive are seen as
powerless to let out their emotions or get their views across. The
communication characteristics they may show are being sarcastic or unreliable
in their emotions1. Non-verbal characteristics they may show are
placid facial expressions. To hide their anger passive-aggressive people may
hide their anger through innocent facial expressions and acting very friendly
when speaking to others.
Cognitive communication model is to do with the
processes of your brain and brain activity. Cognitive communication skills that
are important are attention, memory, and problem solving, organization and
memory flexibility2. These
are important because they mean it’s easier to communicate such as attention
means you have to keep focused and keep your brain focused in the conversation.
Also having memory flexibility means you can put more important information you
need to remember before anything else and organising what you’re going to say
before you say it so it sounds more logical. Also, instead of just using
cognitive communication to process brain activity and thinking of what you’re
going to say it also about looking at others and recognising what certain body
language or facial says as non-verbal communication is vitally important as
this is more reliable as to what a person’s view is. Also remembering what
people have said is important when communicating so you can refer back to it and
shows you’ve listened which is effective communication.
Psychoanalytical communication theory was first introduced
by a trained Sigmund Freud. Through the analysis he found a person’s
personality can be evaluated off a person’s past experiences as these characterise
a person’s behaviour and shape us3. Psychoanalytic theories are a
complex set of theories and principles to understand and to study the human behaviour,
personality, logic and thoughts of a person which may influence communication.