Aspects others being rewarded for aggressive behaviour. For example,

Aspects of human life that are surrounded by social reasons
for why the aggression occurs as a part of an individual’s behaviour are the
main argument for nurture. Certain aspects of person’s life have been
singled out as factors that seem to add to the control and development of aggression,
including family, neighbourhood and
cognitive factors and peer influences. There are few theories in social aspect
of aggression that demonstrate how social environment can add up to human’s
actions. Social Learning Theory (SLT) evolved from operant conditioning which
is a learning procedure through which the strength of behaviour is altered by
reward or punishment, denying that people are inherently aggressive and that frustration
automatically leads to aggression. According to SLT, the aggressive behaviour
can be learned by imitating and observing behaviour of other individuals. This
theory was introduced by Gabriel Tarde (1912) and later proposed by Bandura et
al. (1960), where Bandura and his colleagues have used the term modelling,
which is at times referred to as vicarious learning. The vicarious idiom
basically means indirect; people learn aggression without being directly
reinforced for aggressive performance of our own. This arises when we observe
others being rewarded for aggressive behaviour. For example, if a child witnessed
two other children arguing over a toy where one of the children gains the
control of the toy by being aggressive, hitting the child, this will be
perceived as a reward which then can lead to the observing child to imitate
this behaviour.

There are four processes of social learning:

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Attention – an
individual (in similar age or sex of observer or in a position of power such as
teacher, parent) performing the behaviour

Retention – observer
remembering this behaviour

Motivation – where
observer gains a reason for copying such a behaviour

Reproduction – copying
the behaviour

Reproduction can be only conducted by an observer if they
have the confidence of being capable of doing such an act. Bandura referred to
this as a self-efficiency aspect of social learning. To demonstrate this
theory, Bandura conducted a study with a doll, known as BoboDoll, which carried
out many variations of using it. The conclusion of these researches was that
the human behaviour is often formed by the socio-cultural processes of social
learning. However, Bandura’s theory is deterministic as it is suggesting that
all behaviour is caused by preceding factors and thus is predictable when innate
feelings can counteract.

Another view on social aspect of aggression is
deindividuation – the loss of one’s sense of individuality. Deindividuation is
directly linked with experiencing anonymity, i.e. a state where a person is
convinced, that as a part of grouping he would not be identifiable as an
individual. From the perspective of social psychology it is not important what
kind of grouping this involves. The most important part of deindividuation is
being free from social control. For instance, a child with a spiderman mask on
or an individual hockey supporter amidst a much outsized group of supporters is

There are two factors involved, both decreasing in

Private self-awareness – individual
sensing awareness of himself, actions, thoughts, beliefs

self-awareness – individuals sensing that others are aware of them and that
they are identifiable to others

Experiment conducted by Zimbardo (1969), where the women who
were fully covered, deindividuated, delivered twice more electric shocks as the
individuated ones, proved his theory that reduction of responsibility and reduced
inhibitions could equally increase the possibility of antisocial behaviour. Similarly
in Silke (2003) where he analysed 500 violent attacks where a total of 206
attacks were carried out by people who wore some form of camouflage so identity
could not be acknowledged. An additional study by Zimbardo, known as Standford
prison simulation (1973), relates to institutional aggression. This is when aggression
and violence occurs when the person suffers from loss of personal identity
which is resulting from wearing a uniform either as a police officer or prison
guard. In contradictory research done by Gergen et al. (1973), the
deindividuation did not result in aggressive behaviour. Furthermore on conflicting
research conducted by Postmes and Spears (1998) which held analysis of over 60
studies investigating deindividuation did not discover deindividuation acting
as a psychological impact on the individual’s state and behaviour. They suggest
that change in behaviour of people in group situations has more to do with
group norms than anything else. Aggressive behaviour is not simply about having
social motives, it is far more complex. Examination of aggression in people
suggests the need to inspect possible biological explanations.