As leadership, it has been summarized that the 21st-century


As per the above analysis, it has been observed that the leadership and the employee engagement are two essential feature of any organization. Leadership and the employee engagement are the interrelated terms. It is because leaders have that responsibility to retain the employees for the longer period of time. In this report, the main focus is given to the leadership and the employee retention at the age of uncertainty. In the context of leadership, it has been summarized that the 21st-century leaders are having the better capabilities than the traditional leaders. Moreover, the 21st-century leaders are highly favorable for the organization as comparing the traditional leaders. On the other hand, the employee engagement, as well as retention, is a significant factor of the firm. As the world is uncertain and changes taken place at every minute so to engage them in the company is the major task. Thus, both leadership and the employee retention in the uncertainty are playing a vital role in the firm.


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It has also observed that the traditional leader or the manager mainly depends on the bureaucracy as well as rules but the new leaders lead by sharing the objective or the mission of the firm so that both the leaders and the employers can achieve the desired results for the firm. Moreover, the traditional leaders motivate the employee by giving the monetary appreciation to their subordinates (Lloyd-Walker and Walker, 2011). While, the new leaders consider all the other things like incentives, bonus, promotion and many more to engage the employee in the organization for the longer period of time. In addition to this, the traditional leader’s focuses on the operational issues as these are the most important aspect of the organization. however, the new leaders are totally opposite to the traditional one, as they focus on all the aspects like operational, strategic, internal, external and everything. Thus the 21st-century leaders have the broaden mindset as well as the capabilities to achieve the goals of the firm (Eagly and Chin, 2010).

Traditional leadership and the 21st-century leadership are the two opposite sides of leadership in an organization. Traditional leadership is mainly used in the earlier times in which past tactics, as well as traits of leaders, are considered in the organization. At that moment, leaders lead the organization by commanding or controlling the employees but, on the other side, the new leaders are completely reversing (Dede 2010). They lead the employee by motivating them and guide them in order to make the employees comfortable in the organization. In the past times, the traditional leaders aim to complete the target for the firm only they don’t think about the employee’s needs and emotions. But in the recent times, the employers understand the employees feeling along with their required demands it is because employees are the essential tool for the firm, they are the main operators of the firm.

Comparison of traditional leadership capabilities with 21st-century leadership capabilities


Behavioral theories
The behavioral theory focuses on how a leader must act in a particular situation. In this theory, leadership determines the relationship between the leaders and followers. It is the valuable addition to a leadership (Derue, et. al., 2011).

Competency models
It defines essential variables that foresee job performance. It is the most common approach of HRM. 

Traits Theories
It is also known as great man theory. It’s find out the leader’s personal characteristics as the organization is enduring, changing and predictable.

Situational theories
It focuses on the situational adaptability and behavioral flexibility. The situational theory also reflects the requirement of different expertise in a different situation (Wikström, and Treiber, 2016).

The actions of the leaders reflected in the various models of leadership which are as follow:

Voogt, and Roblin,  (2012) stated that most of the confident leaders rely on the expertise of others in the company. Leaders always know that they are not the experts in the organization. But leaders provide significant directions to others so that they can work together.  Most of the people in the organization try to take possession for success by blaming on others for their mistakes. But confident leaders in the organization take the responsibility for their mistakes and ownership. These leaders learn from their mistakes and move towards the success. mMoreover, Kyllonen,  (2012) said that it is necessary for the 21st century leaders to have an honest and consistent competency. It is because trustable and consistent leaders understand honesty brings a sense of safety in the workplace.  It is significant for the leaders to communicate purpose in which leaders provide rewards and recognition to the employees in order to increases the contribution. The effort of an employee is the part of the strategic vision.

In the view of, Diaz, (2017) It is necessary for the leaders to increase their confidence in order to face uncertainty. Most of the leaders face failure in order to make the decision for the company that decreases the confidence of the leaders. These leaders view that failure as the end which means the end of the career, end of the success and end of the company. On the other hand, confident leaders view its failure as a beginning for new opportunities. It is part of the discovery process in which leaders believes to take sound decision instead of taking unnecessary risks.

The predicted key competencies for 21st century leaders

In this context, they not just need to manage the current set of leadership trait but also to initiate and adopt the new priorities as well as capabilities. Kunze and Bruch, (2010) put forward the notion and the gives the five major step which a leader should take at the age of uncertainty. In the first stage, the leader should observe and understand the broader system of the organization. After this, a leader needs to learn how to intervene the complex system in the firm. The third stage makes the collaboration among the other companies or the partners through which the conflicts can be managed. The fourth steps include the system wise risk reduction or to manage the risk. At the end, leader lead with the new mindset. Thus all these stages are essential in the age of uncertainty for the leaders (Shore, et. al., 2011).

Leaders are the main pillar of the organization. Leaders came out as the essential assets which help in attaining the desired goals and objectives of the firm. moreover, leadership is known for arranging things in the appropriate manner. Leadership and change process are two interconnected terms of management. According to Andreescu and Vito, (2010) leadership is having an influential role in the change process in which other different peoples are also authorized. It has been observed that the today’s business leaders should have the updated mental model which can create a better understanding of the complex situation arises among the companies, economy, and society. Moreover, the leader should broaden their mind in order to embed the business in the market. Thus leadership is an effective concept at the workplace. In the age of uncertainty, leaders should shape their mind in a manner which can improvise the current position of the organization.

Leadership at the age of uncertainity

In the view of, Breevaart, et. al., (2014) most of the organizations feel that strong engagement of the employee is the significant factors in order to influence the future success. The organization provides motivation and rewards to the employees once the set goals achieved.  Managers and leaders must provide well-defined goals instead of throwing target because it increases the belongingness in the organization. The leaders must give more emphases on the employee’s strength instead of weaknesses as it increases the creativity in the organization. The leader is required to develop the strong area of the employees in order to increases the efficiency.  Employee engagement also decreases the amount of absenteeism that increases the engagement towards the customers and sales of the organization (Xu, and Cooper Thomas, 2011).

Brad Shuck, et. al., (2011) it has been examined that 64 percent employees are engaging in the organization because of the trust between the management. Leaders of the business should provide effective tools for employee engagement in order to decreases the turnover and money for training. It is vital to provide clear company objectives, employee’s guidelines, job openings, benefits, wages information and corporate documents.  It is the two-way process in which the organization providing incentives, excellent environment and challenges in order to engage employees. On the other hand, employee continuously contributes towards the organization to provide a profit. Moreover, it is essential to provide a friendly environment in the workplace so that employee can contribute towards the work.

Employee engagement is very important in the organization as it reduces the staff turnover, retain customers, and improve productivity and increases profit. According to Kompaso, and Sridevi, (2010) it has been observed that engaged employees are happier and successful in the workplace.  With the help of employee engagement, most of the business has a 51 percent high productivity. It also increases the shareholder’s returns and increases in operating income. Employee engagement also increases the contribution and participation of the employees in the organization activities. In addition, Mishra, et. al., (2014) argued that leaders or managers must define the purpose of the engagement to the employees. It is vital to understand the engagement principles which include transparency, leadership, purpose, action and commitment. The manager is required to monitor or measure the level of engagement on a daily basis. The organization should focus on the employee’s recognition and growth on the basis of their performance. The company is required to bring visibility and transparency to the employees. It is because trust plays a vital role between the employees and management.

Importance of employee engagement

Schneider, et. al., (2013), gives the contradict statement and states that the above mention points are unfavorable in the organization if communication is not effective in the firm. As the effective communication create the better understanding among the employers and the employees. Moreover, the communication helps in engaging the employee in the firm. This has also considered the important part of the positive culture. The author put forward the notion and states that the positive culture at the workplace can also be done by engaging the team building exercise. In addition to this, the team building is fruitful for the organizational environment. The team building provides an opportunity to employees to perform better in the group so as to get the higher appreciation from the healthy competition. Hence all the above mention information creates the positive culture at the workplace for the employee which can retain the firm for the longer period of time.

In the views of Avey, et. al., (2010), the positive culture at the working premises can be maintained if the employees have the capability to adopt the changes. It is because the uncertain world leads to create many changes in the workplace. Therefore, it is the duty of the employer to prepare their employee in a manner so that they can accept the changes as fast as possible. With the result of which, the company can accomplish the targeted goals on time. Thus it is important for the organization to make the changes as per the need so that the employee can learn the new thing and complete their task for the firm also.

According to Luis Daniel (2010), the culture of the organization not only depends on the employee’s behaviour. It emphasizes on the employers or the leader’s contribution for their employees. The author observed that the employee is happy with the working condition if he is getting required appreciation and benefits. So it is essential for the employee to know that they are appreciated time to time. The monetary or the nonmonetary appreciations are the major tools of the motivation for the workers. With the help of these tools, the employee can work positively and also be loyal towards the organization.

Froman (2010), states that the positive culture is one the most important factor of engaging employees in the organization. It can increase the growth and the productivity of the organization in the market. Hence, the positive culture at the workplace can make the organization fair direction to achieve the targets. The author also says that the positive culture can only be maintained at the workplace if the employees are having a positive attitude towards the work and culture. It is because the employee with the negative attitude can spoil the workplace by spreading negativity among the employees. Therefore, the positive culture can lead to have the positive workers at the workplace.


Kwenin, et. al., (2013) stated that managers give more emphases on the engagement and performance to satisfy the employees and maximizes the employee engagement. Managers must involve with the employees in order to set the goals. It is important to provide fair wages for women and men because it helps to retain employees. Managers must praise the performance of the employees and also provide training and feedback in order to retain the employees. Furthermore, leadership development is very important in the age of uncertainty because it develops the growth mindset. It is vital for the manager, CEO, and senior leaders to discuss the development opportunities because it develops the growth and talent among the employees (Sinha, and Sinha, 2012).

Stanford, (2016)  it is necessary to analyze the uncertain economic climate which includes how managers and leaders use roadmap, how the organizations handle its talent in order to promote its growth and its engagement, how to prepare for the best and worst in the organization on a daily basis. The most significant way for the talent retention is empowerment, trust, goal setting, performance management, self-monitoring and others. It is important to take corrective actions on low engagement level by treating employees like an individual and the members of a community. The managers must facilitate ERP system so that employees can track their own performance in the workplace.

Leadership and employee retention in an age of uncertainty


The 21st century is described by the development of a worldwide economy that changes technology, increases cultural diversity and downsizing. The perceptive of leadership qualities has been changed from static trait-based approaches to the proficiency-based identification. It is because the demand for the leadership competency has been changed. Leadership is a most significant element of any planned activity whether it is politics, war and religion. Leadership is the capabilities of an individual in the organization in order to direct other towards success. The reports give a brief review on leadership and employee retention in the age of uncertainty. The report also analyses what employers can do in order to provide a positive environment. It also examines the importance of employee engagement at the workplace. Moreover, the report analyses leadership traits for the age of uncertainty and the key predicted competencies for the 21st leaders. It also analyses the comparison between traditional leadership capabilities and 21st-century leadership.