Armand Quality.” Prior to assuming his responsibilities at General

Armand Vallin Feigenbaum (April 6, 1922 – November 13, 2014)
was an American businessman, management consultant, and quality control expert. He
started his career as manager at General Electric (GE) in Schenectady, New
York, where he worked in quality control. Feigenbaum devised the concept of Total Quality Control which inspired Total Quality Management (TQM).

Quote: “Product
quality can then be
defined as: The composite product characteristics of engineering and
manufacturing that determine the degree to which the product, in use, will meet
the expectations of the customer.”

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Over the years he has been a leading voice of the
international view in the field of quality control and quality management. His
citation for the award recognizes “his outstanding contributions toward
international cooperation in quality control through his development and
sharing of knowledge and experience around the world, and for his leadership in
the International Academy for Quality.” Prior to assuming his
responsibilities at General Systems Co., Feigenbaum was the manager of
worldwide manufacturing operations and quality control for the General Electric
Co. In recognition of “his origination and implementation of basic
foundations for modern quality control,” Feigenbaum was awarded ASQ’s
Edwards Medal for 1965. Feigenbaum’s diverse achievements and many awards
testify to his profound influence on management strategy in the competition for
world markets, and to the timeless good sense of total quality control.

Quality control may be defined as: An effective system
for coordinating the quality maintenance and quality improvement efforts of the
various groups in an organization to enable production at the most economical
levels which allow for full customer satisfaction. What are new in the modern
approach to quality control are integration of these often-uncoordinated
activities into an over-all administrative program for a factory and the
addition to the time-tested methods used of a few new techniques which have
been found useful in dealing with and thinking about the increased emphasis
upon precision in manufactured parts. Product and service quality can be
defined as the total composite product and service characteristics of
marketing, engineering, manufacturing, and maintenance through which the
product and service in use will meet the expectations of the customer. 7 Total
quality control is an effective system for integrating the quality development,
quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in
an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical
levels which allow full customer satisfaction.

Feigebaum defines “Quality Control as an
effective system for coordinating the quality maintenance and quality
improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable
production at the most economical levels which allow for full customer
satisfaction” According to Feigenbaum, Quality didn’t mean giving the best
product to the customer.

Total
Quality Control

Armand
V. Feigenbaum defined Total Quality Control as follows:

Total quality control is an effective
system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and
quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization to enable
production and service at the most economical levels which allow full customer
satisfaction.

Hidden Plant

Armand
V. Feigenbaum is also known for his concept of the “hidden plant”. That is that in every factory a certain proportion
of its capacity is wasted through not getting it right first time. Feigenbaum
quoted a figure of up to 40% of the capacity of the plant being wasted. At the
time this was an unbelievable figure; even today some managers are still to
learn that this is a figure not too far removed from the truth.

Crucial
elements of Total Quality

The
elements of total quality to enable a totally customer focus (internal and
external)

·        
Quality is the customers perception
of what quality is, not what a company thinks it is

·        
Quality and cost are the same not
different

·        
Quality is an individual and team
commitment

·        
Quality and innovation are interrelated
and mutually beneficial

·        
Managing Quality is managing the
business

·        
Quality is a principal

·        
Quality is not a temporary or quick
fix but a continuous process of improvement

·        
Productivity gained by cost
effective demonstrably beneficial Quality investment

·        
Implement Quality by encompassing
suppliers and customers in the system

 

 

Joseph Moses Juran was born on the 24th December 1904
in Br?ila in Romania and died on the 28th February 2008 in Rye, USA. During his
childhood the family moved to the U.S. He received a bachelor’s degree at The
University of Minnesota in electrical engineering. He worked at Western
Electric. Here he met with the then news – technique of statistical sampling
and control chart.

When studying for the Project Management Professional (PMP)®
accreditation, you may have met Juran as you came to grips with Project Quality
Management. Probably Juran’s most significant legacy is his “Quality Trilogy”
where he advocates Quality Planning, Quality Improvement and Quality Control.
Under the Quality Planning heading, Project Managers are expected to identify
who the customers are, determine the needs of those customers, translate those
needs into terms that we understand, develop a product, service or result that
can respond to those needs and optimize the deliverables the better to meet
those needs. To consider the process used to realize these deliverables,
Project Managers must use Quality Improvement. Finally, Quality Control is
where the Project Manager proves that the process can produce the deliverable
under operating conditions with minimal inspection. Juran’s Trilogy is an approach to cross
functional management that is composed of three managerial processes: planning,
control, and improvement.

QUALITY PLANNING

This
is the activity of developing the products and processes required to meet
customer’s needs. It involves a series of universal steps which can be
abbreviated as follows:

·        
Establish
quality goals

·        
Identify
the customers- those who will be impacted by the efforts to meet the goal.

·        
Determine
the customers’ needs

·        
Develop
product features that respond to customers’ needs

·        
Develop
processes that are able to produce those product features

·        
Establish
process controls, and transfer the resulting plans to the operating forces

QUALITY CONTROL

This
process consists of the following steps:

·        
Evaluate
actual quality performance

·        
Compare
actual performance to quality goals

·        
Act
on the difference

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

This
process is the means of raising quality performance to unprecedented levels
(“breakthrough”). The methodology consists of a series of universal steps:

·        
Establish
the infrastructure needed to secure annual quality improvement.

·        
Identify
the specific needs for improvement -the improvement projects

·        
For
each project establish a project team with clear responsibility for bringing
the project to a successful conclusion

·        
Provide
the resource, motivation, and training needed by the team to:

1.   
Diagnose
the cause

2.   
Stimulate
establishment of remedies

3.   
Establish
controls to hold the gains

Cost
of Quality

The cost of quality, or
not getting it right first time, Juran maintained should be recorded and
analyzed and classified into failure costs, appraisal costs and prevention
costs. FAILURE
COSTS; Scrap, rework, corrective actions, warranty claims, customer
complaints and loss of custom. APPRAISAL COSTS; Inspection, compliance
auditing and investigations. PREVENTION COSTS; Training,
preventive auditing and process improvement implementation

 

Ten Steps of Quality Improvement

Juran proposes 10 steps
to quality improvement:

1.    Build awareness of the need and
opportunity to improve

2.    Set goals for that improvement

3.    Create plans to reach the goals

4.    Provide training

5.    Conduct projects to solve problems

6.    Report on progress

7.    Give recognition for success

8.    Communicate results

9.    Keep score

10.  Maintain momentum

 

Kaoru Ishikawa (July 13, 1915 – April
16, 1989) was a Japanese organizational theorist, Professor at the Faculty of Engineering
at The University of Tokyo, noted for his quality management innovations. He is
considered a key figure in the development of quality initiatives in Japan,
particularly the quality circle. He is best known
outside Japan for the Ishikawa or cause and
effect diagram (also known as fishbone diagram) often used in the
analysis of industrial processes.

Perhaps Ishikawa’s most important contribution has been his
key role in the development of a specifically Japanese quality strategy. As a
member of the editorial board of Quality Control for the Foreman, as chief
executive director of Quality Control Circle Headquarters at the Union of
Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE), and as editor of JUSE’s two books on
quality circles (QC Circle Koryo and How to Operate QC Circle Activities),
Ishikawa played a major role in the growth of quality circles. Although the
quality circle was developed in Japan, it spread to more than 50 countries, a
development Ishikawa never foresaw. In How to Operate QC Circle Activities,
Ishikawa calls middle and upper management the parent-teacher association of
quality control circles. Support from the top is a key element in Japan’s all
encompassing quality strategy: company-wide quality control (CWQC), perhaps
best described in Ishikawa’s What is Total Quality Control? Ishikawa was also
involved in efforts to promote quality ideas throughout Japan, both in industry
and among consumers. As chairman of Japan’s Quality Month committee, Ishikawa
was involved in the selection of Japan’s quality mark and quality flag.

Ishikawa expanded Deming’s four steps into the following
six:

Determine goals and targets.
Determine methods of reaching goals.
Engage in education and training.
Implement work.
Check the effects of implementation.
Take appropriate action.

Company-wide Quality

Kaoru Ishikawa
built on Feigenbaum’s concept of total quality and suggested that all employees
have a greater role to play, arguing that an over-reliance on the quality
professional would limit the potential for improvement. Under the
“company-wide” Ishikawa umbrella are not just a company’s internal quality control
activities but the company itself, the quality of management, human respect,
after sales service and customer care.

Therefore,
suggesting the following benefits:

·        
Reduced defect

·        
Improved product quality is improved

·        
Quality improvement becomes the norm

·        
Increased reliability

·        
Reduced costs

·        
Increased quality of production

·        
Waste is identified and reduced

·        
Rework is identified and reduced

·        
Improvement techniques are
established and continually improved

·        
Inspection and after-the-fact
expenses are reduced

·        
Contracts are rationalized

·        
Sales and market opportunities are
increased

·        
Company reputation is increased

·        
Interdepartmental barriers are
broken down and communication becomes easier

·        
False and inaccurate data is reduced

·        
Meetings are more effective and
focused

·        
Repairs and maintenance are
rationalized

·        
Improvement in human relations

·        
Company loyalty is increased

 

Noriaki Kano is an educator, lecturer, writer and consultant in the field
of quality management. He is the developer of a customer satisfaction model (now known as the Kano model) whose simple ranking
scheme distinguishes between essential and differentiating attributes related
to concepts of customer quality. He is a professor emeritus of the Tokyo University of Science. He was Visiting Professor at the University of Rome III during the academic year 2010-2011.

The Kano Model of product development and
customer satisfaction was published in 1984 by Dr Noriaki Kano, professor of
quality management at the Tokyo University of Science. Kano says that a product
or service is about much more than just functionality. It is also about
customers’ emotions. For example, all customers who buy a new car expect it to
stop when they hit the brakes, but many will be delighted by its voice-activated
parking-assist system. The model encourages you to think about how your
products relate to your customers’ needs, while moving from a “more is
always better” approach to product development to a “less is more”
approach. Constantly introducing new features to a product can be expensive and
may just add to its complexity without boosting customer satisfaction. On the
other hand, adding one particularly attractive feature could delight customers
and increase sales without costing significantly more.

The model
assigns three types of attribute (or property) to products and services:

1.   
Threshold Attributes (Basics). These are the
basic features that customers expect a product or service to have. For example,
when you book into a hotel, you’d expect hot water and a bed with clean linen
as an absolute minimum.

2.   
Performance Attributes (Satisfiers). These elements
are not absolutely necessary, but they increase a customer’s enjoyment of the
product or service. Returning to our example, you’d be pleased to discover that
your hotel room had free superfast broadband and an HD TV, when you’d normally
expect to find paid-for wi-fi and a standard TV.

3.   
Excitement Attributes (Delighters). These are the
surprise elements that can really boost your product’s competitive edge . They are the
features that customers don’t even know they want, but are delighted with when
they find them.

In your hotel room,
that might be finding the complimentary Belgian chocolates that the evening turn-down
service has left on the bed.

Figure
1, illustrates how the presence (or absence) of each of the three attributes in
a product or service can affect customer satisfaction

 

 

 

 

 

You can see that, if a product’s
features don’t meet a customer’s Threshold Attributes, his or her satisfaction
levels will be very low. However, even if you fully deliver on these, you won’t
impress customers that much. Most products compete on Performance Attributes,
where a customer weighs up one product against another and judges satisfaction
by the availability of various features. But she may discover an Excitement
Attribute that really appeals to her, and gives her high satisfaction, even if
it isn’t perfectly implemented.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the bottom right
quadrant, you can see that a product with just Threshold Attributes, even if it
has a number of them, may not even lead to an indifferent level of customer
satisfaction. Customers begin to find your product attractive when you offer
Performance Attributes, and it’s along this line, in the top right quadrant,
that most organizations position their products in the market. Excitement
Attributes are the “wow factor” features that can give you a competitive advantage . These features
can represent a good return on investment , because you
don’t need many of them to generate high levels of customer satisfaction.