steroids (AAS) are defined as synthetic derivatives of the endogenous sex
hormone testosterone. These compounds have been clinically used to treat many
diseases as hypogonadism, anemia, and protein deficiency as well as severe
weight loss associated with chronic diseases (Kurling-Kailanto et al., 2010).
AAS are also one of the most
commonly used drugs among athletes to improve physical performance, lean body
mass, muscle size and strength (Sinha-Hikim et al., 2002; Evans, 2004; Kanayama
et al., 2010).
steroids are often abused by competing athletes desiring rapid increase in
muscle mass and non-athletes aiming to improve their personal appearance (Angell
et al., 2012). The abuse of AAS may be a serious problem all over the world
and during the past 2 decades the number of AAS users increased more than 2000%
in the world (Arazi et al., 2017). According to the National Institute on Drug
Abuse, it was reported that nandrolone is one of the most used anabolic
derivative of testosterone, because of its moderate androgenic potential
associated with the good anabolic properties (Andreato et al., 2013).
Previous studies reported
many serious side effects resulted from abusing these anabolic drugs which include
cardiovascular disorder which can lead to sudden death, acute hepatitis, jaundice,
testicular dysfunction with subsequent infertility, hypertension and behavioral
disorders (Al-Kennany & Al-Hamdany, 2014). Moreover, reduction of
immune cell number and function were also reported (Marshall-Gradisnik et
al., 2009). Evidence of side effects affecting the kidney and the renal
function is sporadically emerging from clinical reports of renal disorders
among AASs users, especially with high doses and prolonged use (Daher et
al., 2009; Herlitz et al., 2010).
Survey of literature
revealed that diets rich in vegetables and fruits are associated with reduced risk
of various diseases. The main role of these phytonutrients is not only
providing the body with fibers, indoles and phenols but also reducing oxidative
stress, as they contain natural nutrient antioxidants like carotenoids,
flvanoids, vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin E (Singh et al., 2012).
Lycopene is considered
the most prevalent antioxidant carotenoid in the Western diet. It is present in
tomatoes, watermelon, pink grapefruit and several other red fruits (Story et
al., 2010). Consumption of tomatoes or tomato products is usually associated
with increased lycopene blood levels and reduced oxidative damage of lipids,
proteins, and DNA (Palabiyik et al., 2017). Recent studies have reported
that the supplementation of lycopene rich diets is associated with reduced risk
of many chronic diseases, cancer, heart diseases, a reduction in blood pressure,
diabetes, ageing and other degenerative diseases in humans (El-Gerbed,
Considering that anabolic
steroids are widely used in humans to improve athletic performance and knowing
that their overuse may cause lesions in many organs, we have designed this research
to study the histological changes in the kidney of adult male albino rats under
the effect of anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) and role of lycopene in
alleviating these changes.