Advertising and the associated health risks, various countries are

Advertising targeting children has always been a contentious social policy issue. Social psychologists have argued that endorsing can have a harmful influence on children’s consumption decisions. Moreover, amid growing concerns about childhood obesity and the associated health risks, various countries are mulling over banning fast-food advertising targeting children. In this article, the authors’ objective is to examine the follow through of the fast-food ban in the Canadian province of Quebec. Using household expenditure survey data from 1984 to 1992, authors assess if expenditure on fast-food is lesser in the clusters affected by the ban than in those that are not. They have also utilized a triple difference-indifference methodology by appropriately defining treatment and control groups and discover that the ban’s effectiveness is not a result of the decrease in fast food expenditures per week, but rather of the decrease in purchase propensity by 13%% per week. Overall, the authors estimate that the ban reduced fast-food consumption by Us$88 million per year. The study suggests that advertising bans can be effective provided media markets do not overlap. Article 2: Explicating the Moral Responsibility of the Advertiser: TARES as an Ethical Model for Fast Food AdvertisingIn 2009, the fast-food industry spent more than $4.2 billion on TV advertising and other media (Harris, Schwartz, & Brownell, 2009). This study aims to explicate the ethical dimensions of fast-food advertisements through five principles of the TARES framework of persuasion ethics. In moral weight, fast-food is negatively personified. A deontological-ethical perspective, by focusing on the quality of the advertising message, shifts the focus from the product to a more measured deliberation about the moral responsibility of fast-food advertisers to tackle them as moral agents who are held responsible for their messages. This study seeks to identify and explicate the ethical dimensions of fast food advertising to children in Singapore. As the research turns out, children have become a favorite target for fast food companies because “they are less attached to traditional fare” (Schlosser, 2001) and “develop their food preferences at an early age, which explains why processed and fast food companies target young children with an awesome array of marketing strategies” (Mehta, 2007).Article 3: Delineating responsibility, decisions and compromises: a frame analysis of the fast food industry’s online CSR communication.The primary scholarly objective of this article is to respond to questions raised by consumers, consumer-rights groups, and food activist organizations. Moreover, this paper exhibits a frame analysis method to emphasize the ways in which the quick-service restaurant (QSR) industry – or fast food restaurant industry – mobilizes official websites to convey messages with respect to nutrition and health to consumers and other relevant publics, especially using the language of corporate social responsibility. In the context of the increasing association of QSR industry food to the obesity epidemic in the U.S.A., several extensive fast-food chains have established prodigious communication schemes to address the health concerns of the public of their foods. Utilizing a frame analysis method, the study shows that the industry habitually draws on metaphors of ‘individual responsibility’ and ‘personal choice’ in deciding for a healthy food, while building the initial role of moderation and exercise in avoiding obesity. As a contribution to the field of PR, this emic frame analysis features an integrative approach that mixes message features in line with message intention. This abstract elaborates practical applications of the study findings as well.  In theory, this study recommends that individuals looking for health-related information and suggestions should be vigilant about those provided by the industry, including messages labelled at independent, value-neutral opinion.Article 4: Original Article: Commercial Television Exposure, Fast Food Toy Collecting, and Family Visits to Fast Food Restaurants among Families Living in Rural CommunitiesThe goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between children’s exposure to television networks that aired child-directed endorsements for children’s fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. The design of the study surveyed one hundred parents of 3-7-year old children who came from rural pediatrics clinic in 2011. Parents have reported information regarding their children’s television viewing frequency, how often their families go to fast-food establishments that exhibited child-directed television marketing at the time, and their children’s demand for visits to and collecting of toy premiums from these fast-food chains. Logistic regression models apprised connections among child’s television viewing with more frequent fast-food restaurant visits while a structural equation model determined if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Conclusively, greater exposure of children towards fast-food TV commercial networks that aired child-directed endorsements for children’s fast food meals was associated with more frequent family visits to those fast-food restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be an interceding factor.Article 5: Content of Food Advertising for Young Adolescents on Television.Food-related broadcast and advertisements presented on television may have a big impact on the dietary habits and obesity among young adolescents. This academic journal that is rooted from Indian Journal of Community Medicine aims to evaluate the frequency and typology of food endorsements on famous television channels, viewed by school-going young adolescents in Delhi. This study has imposed a Biphasic study to (a) identify the three television channels most frequently watched by administering a questionnaire to 400 school going young adolescents; and (b) watch each of these channels for 2 hours per day for 6 days each, and observe the content of advertisements related to foods, beverages, and food outlets. In lieu of this research, its writers hypothesized that most of the food advertising content on television that majority of young adolescents watch is related to unhealthy foods and beverages, high in energy and low in micronutrient content. Article 6: Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation.Fast-food companies McDonald’s and Burger King were involved in marketing self-regulation programs that aims to limit highlights on premiums and promote reiteration of healthy food decisions in the US. This report determined what children recall from fast-food television advertisements aired by the said companies. In context, one hundred children aged 3–7 years old were presented a McDonald’s and Burger King children’s and adult meal ads, arbitrarily taken from endorsements that were aired on national US television from the year 2010-2011. Shortly after seeing the advertisement, children were then asked to remember what they had seen, and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. As an outcome, premium/tie-ins were discovered common in children but barely appeared in adult endorsements and programs, and all children’s advertisements involved pictures of healthy foods (apples and milk).  Conclusions further state that for children’s ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie. Qualitatively, children’s’ net impressions of television fast-food ads show that industry self-regulation were not able to manage de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. Article 7: STUDENTS’ HABITS IN FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS.In this abstract, the researchers have presented the survey of Leonardo Partnership. In this groundwork, authors aimed to know the young people’s knowledge and habits in fast-food restaurants – the measurement produced by an international group, members of Leonardo partnership (Culture and Health Knowledge Integration into the Vocational Education of Food and Beverage /EN-2012-Leo-PA-6127/ Leonardo da Vinci Program Partnership Project). The researchers have tried to gain knowledge of what the students’ opinion is about the fast-food, what is their favorable meal, how often do they go to the fast-food restaurants, and the reason why they eat there. Furthermore, the cluster has manifested a survey, filled by various pupils from each six countries. The questionnaire was published and filled on the website of EvaSys and data were evaluated with the EvaSys Programme as well. Coming from 465 questionnaires, students were asked if they have been taught with regards to nutritional food – results have provided majority were educated with eating healthy. Analyzed by gender, more boys go to fast-food restaurants than girls. Furthermore, most come in groups of peers. In this academic form, the researchers present the national and traditional food of all six countries. They would like to recommend the new taste, new style, and new possibilities for healthy nutrition and healthy life.Article 8: Original article: Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald’s and SubwayThe design of this research article is to determine whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as “healthy” (Subway) purchase lesser calories than at a competing chain (McDonald’s). The disposal pressed into method was a study of 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. The study used a community partnered participatory research framework in which the University of California partnered with the Youth, Family, School and Community Partnership In Action (YFSC-PIA), a group of mostly Filipino parents and children who actively participate in health related activities. This collaboration selected the study sites identified the methods used to enroll adolescents; and provided input on how the data would be collected, analyzed, and presented. The researchers of this paper classified the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald’s and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA.  In the gathering the final quantitative data, the study further hypothesized that, despite being marketed as “healthy,” adolescents buying a meal at Subway order just as many calories as at McDonald’s. SynthesisIn settlement of conclusions, TV and media fast-food endorsements having the same target segment which is children and adolescents is the commonality of this synthesis. For the run through of the cognitive category, comprehensively, these children and adolescents view online or aired endorsements regarding McDonalds’ or fast-food ads and tend to think that these food ads are enticing and, in some cases, can improve health and appetite. To think that these ads are enticing, the segment together with their families, guardians, or even by themselves, purchase and involve themselves in frequent visits to these fast-food chains, mostly known brands especially McDonald’s – a fast food company that was founded in 1940. As a crowning movement, these people end up consuming their fast-food preference regardless of the products’ price, health implications and characteristics.While the academic journals used, this research complies with a hypothesis that there is a correlation between children and adolescents viewing television or online fast-food commercials and the frequency they and their families purchase these types of food. To boot, it is essential to comprehend that not all these activities have an outright backlash and health development. In greater circumstances, children and adolescents of the centennial generation are mostly exposed to food publicity regardless whether the food to be consumes is healthy or feeble – whether it contained excessive calories, or it lacks the nutrients the segment needs, pricey, or in whatever aspect the fast-food brand is unfavorably known for.