adaptationan worldcomparative anatomythe study of the similarities and differences

adaptationan inherited modification of structure or function that allows an organism to survive and reproduce in its environmentallele frequencythe number of times a particular allele occurs in a gene pool compared to the total number of alleles for that particular geneanalogous structurebody parts in different species that have the same appearance or function, but are not the result of common descentartificial selectionthe process of breeding only livestock or crops with desirable characteristics in order to increase the frequency of those characteristics in the offspringbiogeographythe study of the past and present geographical distribution of species found throughout the worldcomparative anatomythe study of the similarities and differences in anatomy between different speciescomparative embryologythe comparison of the earliest stages of development between different speciescomparative geneticsthe study of the similarities and differences in the DNA sequences of different speciesdescent with modificationevolution; the idea that organisms change over time through modification from an ancient ancestorevolutionthe process by which organisms develop over time through modification from an ancient ancestorextincta species with no surviving membersfossilthe preserved remains or traces of an ancient organismgene poolthe total number of genes, including all the different alleles for those genes, present in a population at a particular timehomologous structurebody parts in different species that may not serve the same function but have a similar structure due to common descentnatural selectiona nonrandom mechanism of evolution in which the fittest organisms survive and leave the most offspringpolygenic traita trait that is controlled by more than one geneprinciple of common descentthe idea that all organisms share an ancient common ancestorsingle-gene traita trait that is controlled by a single genesurvival of the fittestthe idea that organisms adapt to their environment through natural selection so that the best suited organisms survive and pass their genes on to their offspringvariationthe difference between individuals in a populationvestigial structurehomologous structures that have lost most or all of their original function

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